By Christopher Lord (auth.)
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Extra resources for A Democratic Audit of the European Union
Although the EU would not be the first territorial unit to find that contending constructions of its own identity are amongst the main cleavages that have to be managed by its shared institutions, the distribution of feelings of identification with the political system may be as much a constraint on options for its democratic development as their level, particularly when, as will be discussed in the next chapter, geography is the basis for who has vetoes on questions of institutional design. 1, since all probe the willingness of respondents to accept that Union level majorities should determine political outcomes.
This paints a bleaker picture. The rest of the book will make extensive use of opinion polls and other survey evidence. 5 Satisfaction with democracy in the EU Satisfaction with democracy in the EU Eurobarometer number Very/fairly satisfied Not/not at all satisfied 39 44 41 40 44 38 41 42 42 42 37 39 43 39 42 48 37 44 51 42 39 54 40 43 56 44 38 In your assessment, do European citizens always, never or rarely have a say in the decisions of the EU? (Eurobarometer, 1995, p. 48) EU15 Aus Bel Den Fin Fr Ger Gr Ire It Neths P Sp Swe UK 1.
Where the right of the unit to make binding decisions is in dispute, no amount of agreement on what would be a democratically impeccable procedure for it to employ can make it legitimate. This is, moreover, the one question that cannot be determined by democratic process itself, since the latter presupposes prior settlement of the very point at issue: namely, who is to be included and who excluded from voting and deliberation (Dahl, 1989). It might seem that there is little to add to this debate in general or to its application to the EU in particular (Chryssochou, 1994).