By James Legge; Fa-Hien
Read or Download A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms. Being an account by the Chinese Monk Fa-Hien of his travels in India and Ceylon (A.D. 399-414) in search of the Buddhist Books of Discipline. PDF
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Additional resources for A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms. Being an account by the Chinese Monk Fa-Hien of his travels in India and Ceylon (A.D. 399-414) in search of the Buddhist Books of Discipline.
A y o j a n a to the north-east of the city brought him to the mouth of a valley, where there is Buddha’s pewter sta ff6; and a v ih d r a also has 1 The Vai^yas, or bourgeois caste of Hindu society, are described here as ( resident scholars/ 3 See Eitel’s Handbook under the name vim oksha, which is explained as * the act of self-liberation,1 and 1 the dwelling or state of liberty/ There are eight acts of liberating one’s self from all subjective and objective trammels, and as many states of liberty (vim ukti) resulting therefrom.
Characteristics of it are the preponderance of active moral asceticism, and the absence of speculative myBticism and quietism/ E. , pp. 151-2, 45, and 117. 3 The name for India is here the same as in the former chapter and throughout the book,— Teen-chuh Afc), the chuh being pronounced, pro bably, in Fa-hien^s time as tuk. How the earliest name for India, S h in -tu k or duk=Scinde, came to be changed into Thien-tuk, it would take too much space to explain. I believe it was done by the Buddhists, wishing to give a good auspicious name to the fatherland of their Law, and calling it ( the Heavenly Tuk/ just as the Mohammedans call Arabia ‘ the Heavenly region ’ (天 方 ) ， and the court of China itself is called ‘ the Celestial’ ( 天 朝 )• 3 (6ram an ’ may in English take the place of S ram an a (Pali, Samana; in Chinese， Sha-mSn), the name for Buddhist monks, as those who have separated themselves from (left) their families, and quieted their hearts from all intrusion of desire and lust.
Sometimes the two names are used together by our author. 3 Ndga is the Sanskrit name for the Chinese lung or dragon; often meaning a snake, especially the boa. ‘ Chinese Buddhists/ says Eitel, p, 79，1 when speaking of n^gas as boa spirits, always represent them as enemies of mankind, but when viewing them as deities of rivers, lakes, or oceans, they describe them as piously inclined/ The dragon, however, is in China the symbol of the Sovereign and Sage, a use of it unknown in Buddhism, according to which all n玟gas need to be converted in order to obtain a higher phase of being.