By Alan Farmer

The fourth variation of this bestselling identify charts the process British overseas coverage from the top of the 1st global struggle and the Treaty of Versailles, to the social and fiscal results of the second one global battle. there's a specific concentration and research of the difficulty of appeasement through the interval, in particular within the run-up to the second one international battle. Public opinion and the function of key contributors is explored all through and the narrative concludes with an interpretation of the explanations of and purposes for British international rules around the period.

Throughout the ebook, key dates, phrases and matters are highlighted, and ancient interpretations of key debates are defined. precis diagrams are incorporated to consolidate wisdom and figuring out of the interval, and exam-style questions and advice written via examiners give you the chance to boost examination skills.

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Indeed, in the 1920s British Foreign Office officials feared French domination of Europe as much as they feared the possibility of a German revival of strength. Moreover, many British politicians soon expressed misgivings about Germany’s treatment in 1919. There was unease about the one-sided application of self-determination (see page 20), about Germany’s exclusion from the League of Nations (see page 22) and about reparations. Many influential people thought that a revision of the treaty was urgently needed if there was to be a lasting peace.

Indeed, few issues in British foreign policy in the twentieth century have been more controversial than appeasement and few Prime Ministers more vilified than Neville Chamberlain. This chapter will examine why British governments acted as they did, by focusing on the following themes: • • • • • • • • • • Depression and disarmament The problem of Japan 1931–3 The problem of Germany 1933–5 The problem of Italy 1935–6 The Rhineland, Spain and rearmament Chamberlain’s aims in foreign policy Chamberlain’s concerns 1937–8 The Anschluss The problem of Czechoslovakia The Munich Conference Key dates 1931 August National Government formed in Britain September Japanese troops began military operations in Manchuria 1932 February Import Duties Act October Lord Lytton’s Commission reported on the Manchuria situation 1933 January Hitler became German Chancellor October Germany left the Disarmament Conference and the League of Nations 1935 March Hitler announced German rearmament June Anglo-German Naval Agreement October Italy invaded Abyssinia November Baldwin’s National Government won the general election 1936 March German troops reoccupied the Rhineland 50 | British Foreign Affairs: Saving Europe at a Cost?

In March 1918 Britain sent troops to Murmansk and Archangel to ensure that war supplies which had been sent there did not fall into Bolshevik hands. As Russia plunged into civil war, British 30 | British Foreign Affairs: Saving Europe at a Cost? 1919–60 The British left and Bolshevik Russia Left-wing opinion, including the Labour Party and the Trades Union Congress (TUC), had condemned British intervention in Russia, representing it as a capitalist attack on the working class. In 1920 Polish forces tried to take over the Ukraine from Russia.

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