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Extra resources for Accid. Anal. for Nuclear Powerplants

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Scaling studies to quantify the influence of scaling variations between experiments and the actual plant environment are included in this definition. In some references, code scaling and uncertainty analysis are identified separately. The evaluation of uncertainty, restricted to design basis analyses, is discussed in Annex II. Probabilistic analyses are performed to quantify the consequences of the end points of PSA sequences. Because there can be many such sequences, they are usually grouped into categories, and one representative or bounding analysis is performed for each category.

The operator has a sufficient time margin (usually at least 15–30 min) to diagnose the event and to take proper corrective action. Computer codes and models. Specific conservative models and correlations are used that have been demonstrated to provide pessimistic estimates of the response of a plant. For example, correlations for oxidation of fuel rod cladding are specified that provide an upper bound on the amount of heating and on the extent of cladding oxidation in a specified accident. Conservative models are normally used in combination so that it is assumed that the conservative conditions occur simultaneously for all the phenomena represented by the conservative models.

The results of sensitivity analyses using arbitrary variations in input or modelling parameters are sometimes inadvertently misinterpreted as code uncertainties. However, such an interpretation is really only valid if the variations reflect the uncertainty estimates in significant parameters and if the uncertainties in the models used to propagate the results of such variations are negligible. Expert judgement and early sensitivity studies have identified which accident sequences need to be included in analyses of DBAs and, in some formalized approaches, which phenomena need to be considered in the estimation of code uncertainties.

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