By John R. Masters (Editor)
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Extra resources for Animal Cell Culture: A Practical Approach 3rd Edition
To maximize the benefit of perfusion, immobilization of suspension cells was needed to prevent cell wash-out, and this resulted in a collection of novel systems based on hollow fibres, membranes, encapsulation, and specialized matrices. Immobilization has many process advantages (see Section 5), and currently the effort is on scaling-up suitable entrapment matrices in fluidized and fixed beds. 1 Introduction Tissue culture flasks and tubes giving surface areas of 5-200 cm2 are familiar to all tissue culturists.
Continuous-flow culture in the chemostat implies that cell yields are never maximal because a limiting growth factor is used to control the growth rate. 6). Some applications, such as the production of a cytopathic virus, leave no choice other than batch culture. Maintenance of high yields, and therefore high product concentration, may be necessary to reduce downstream processing costs and these could outweigh medium expenses. For this purpose perfusion has to be used. Although for many processes this is more economical than batch culture, it does add to the complexity of the equipment and process, and increases the risk of a mechanical or electrical failure or microbial contamination prematurely ending the production run.
However, it may be damaging to animal cells due to the effect of the high surface energy of the bubble on the cell membrane. g. 5 ml/1 min), and by adding Pluronic F-68. g. multiple plate propagators). When sparging is used, efficiency of oxygenation is increased by using a culture vessel with a large height/diameter ratio. This creates a higher pressure at the base of the reactor, which increases oxygen solubility. 3 Membrane diffusion Silicone tubing is very permeable to gases, and if long lengths of thin-walled tubing can be arranged in the culture vessel then sufficient diffusion of oxygen into the culture can be obtained.