By Nora Berend

It is a learn of the industrial, social, criminal and non secular place of 3 minorities in the medieval Christian state of Hungary. The ebook demonstrates that the prestige of such minorities depended now not easily on Christian non secular tenets, yet on a bigger framework--including the felony and social approach, fiscal chances, and conflicts among kings and the clergy. It additionally investigates the location "at the gate of Christendom"--the frontier with the nomad world--and the best way this affected either Christian and non-Christian interplay and Christian ideology.

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48 In the Anatolian context, with precipitations standing then as they do now just above the minimum required for cultivating cereals without irrigation, a drier than usual summer could have a major effect on the balance between the productivity—and thus availability and price—of wheat and of barley. 49 This also suggests that, when given the choice (same price, same availability), people would choose to consume wheat rather than barley. It was, in other words, a “matter of taste,” affording us rare concrete evidence to support the commonsense assumption that taste had an impact on the economics of food production.

Whether a given plot was associated with a given individual), we must look into the way that waqfiyyas refer to countryside real estate. 71 There are several reasons to make such a claim. 75 Whether the revenues of endowments were organized in such a fashion or not, it is nevertheless clear that villages were collective spaces of habitation but did not constitute single units of production in which the various plots of land would have been worked by all villagers collectively (like kolkhozes or kibbutzim).

10 The importance of ensuring security against theft can be further illustrated through contrast, in the mention by al-­ʿUmarī’s informant that a particular mountainous region in western Anatolia was filled with wild-­growing trees whose fruits are freely available to anyone who may care to pick them. 12 There is obviously no way to determine the relative importance—in terms of time or energy spent—of protection and horticulturalism for a gardener. Yet when depicting these individuals, narrative sources put the emphasis on their control over ready-­to-­eat produce, through either sale or theft prevention, rather than on their planting and taking care of the crops.

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