By S S Bhavikatti

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Additional info for Basic Civil Engineering (As per the syllabus of RGPV, Bhopal)

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If there is little or no expansion, but only cracks appear it belongs to class B lime. 3 Uses of Lime The following are the uses of lime in civil works: (i) For white washing. (ii) For making mortar for masonry works and plastering. (iii) To produce lime sand bricks. (iv) For soil stabilization. (v) As a refractory material for lining open hearth furnaces. (vi) For making cement. 4 CEMENT Cement is a commonly used binding material in the construction. The cement is obtained by burning a mixture of calcarious (calcium) and argillaceous (clay) material at a very high temperature and then grinding the clinker so produced to a fine powder.

5. It should be well graded. 6. It should be hard. 2 CEMENT MORTAR For preparing mortar, first a mixture of cement and sand is made thoroughly mixing them in dry condition. Water is gradually added and mixed with shovels. 1. Cement to sand proportions for various works S. No. Works Cement: Sand 1 Masonry works 1:6 to 1:8 2 Plastering masonry 1:3 to 1:4 3 Plastering concrete 1:3 4 Pointing 1:2 to 1:3 Curing: Cement gains the strength gradually with hydration. Hence it is necessary to see that mortar is wet till hydration has taken place.

C2S is the next to hydrate. It hydrates slowly and is responsible for increase in ultimate strength. C4AF is comparatively inactive compound. (ii) Physical properties: The following physical properties should be checked before selecting a portland cement for the civil engineering works. IS 269–1967 specifies the method of testing and prescribes the limits: (a) Fineness (b) Setting time (c) Soundness (d) Crushing strength. (a) Fineness: It is measured in terms of percentage of weight retained after sieving the cement through 90 micron sieve or by surface area of cement in square centimeters per gramme of cement.

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