By Walter Reineke (auth.), B. Beek (eds.)

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The concept is called principle of vinylogy [97]. Therefore compound F, formed in the meta pathway, is a vinylogous b-keto acid ready for decarboxylation, while compounds D and E are vinylogous to 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds which are cleaved by a hydrolytic type of reaction (Fig. 15). Fig. 17. Hydrolytic cleavage of fumarylpyruvate Aerobic and Anaerobic Biodegradation Potentials of Microorganisms 29 Fig. 18. , forming a carbonyl group in a b-position to another carbonyl, is seen in the gentisate pathway (Fig.

Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase, ባ epoxide hydrolase Fig. 24. The extracellular ligninolytic system in ligninolytic fungi. ቢ glyoxal oxidase, ባ lignin peroxidase, ቤ manganese-dependent peroxidase. The structure represents one aroma- tic moiety of the complex lignin molecule 36 W. Reineke radical [136] which in turn initiates a random oxidative chemical reaction that finally results in the oxygenation and depolymerization of lignin including CC-bond cleavage. Manganese-dependent peroxidases function by oxidizing Mn2+ to Mn3+.

The nitratereducing bacteria can recover the high energy input for substrate-activation and for dearomatization through the further breakdown of the cleavage product, which is totally oxidized to CO2 . Since fermenting bacteria can recover only little energy in the further breakdown they apply a different reaction for benzoyl-CoA dearomatization to have the reaction exergonic so that no ATP is necessary. They introduce four electrons and protons from NAD(P)H into the ring structure which directly leads to a cyclohexene derivative [302].

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