By Morton H. Halperin

The 1st version of Bureaucratic Politics and international coverage is likely one of the so much winning Brookings titles of all time. This completely revised model updates that vintage research of the position performed through the federal paperwork --civilian profession officers, political appointees, and armed forces officials --and Congress in formulating U.S. nationwide safety coverage, illustrating how coverage judgements are literally made. executive organizations, departments, and contributors all have yes pursuits to maintain and advertise. these priorities, and the conflicts they usually spark, seriously impression the formula and implementation of overseas coverage. a call that appears like an orchestrated try to impression one other nation may well in truth symbolize a shaky compromise among rival components in the U.S. executive. The authors supply various examples of bureaucratic maneuvering and show how they've got encouraged our diplomacy. The revised version comprises new examples of bureaucratic politics from the prior 3 a long time, from Jimmy Carter's view of the nation division to conflicts among George W. Bush and the forms relating to Iraq. the second one version additionally features a new research of Congress's function within the politics of overseas policymaking.

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3409-3 ch03 9/15/06 4:30 PM Page 32 32 / organizational interests of the rest of the Navy. Senator Henry M. Jackson reported on his frustration in seeking to win support for the Polaris program within the Navy: I was interested in this program from the very outset, going back many, many years. I found that in trying to get the Navy to do something about it, I ran headlong into the competition within the Navy for requirements in connection with their day-to-day operational needs, whether it was anti-submarine warfare or limited war requirements; whatever it was.

Thayer, Diplomat, p. 81. 3409-3 ch03 9/15/06 4:30 PM Page 36 36 / organizational interests same time greatly increased responsibilities were heaped upon the State Department. 13 The officers feared that control over such programs might prove to be embarrassing and would prevent them from focusing on the important functions of reporting and negotiation. A retired Foreign Service officer, Ellis Briggs, expressed that point of view with regard to the functions of an ambassador: In theory each ambassador is responsible for all government operations conducted within his jurisdiction.

The struggle within an organization to determine what organizational role should be stressed is well illustrated by the debate within the Air Force 3409-3 ch03 9/15/06 4:30 PM Page 28 28 / organizational interests Tactical Air Command (TAC) during the cold war. TAC officers seeking to enhance the role of their command had a difficult problem. On one hand they were obliged to pay lip service to TAC’s formal mission—to provide combat air support for ground forces. On the other hand, they were tempted to seek to develop capabilities for the role seen as the essence of the Air Force—namely, the combat delivery of nuclear weapons against the Soviet Union—by creating what Alain C.

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