By Joachim Krebs, Marek Michalak

Calcium is a flexible service of indications regulating many facets of mobile task similar to fertilization to create a brand new existence and programmed mobile dying to finish it. Calcium homeostasis is precisely managed through channels, pumps and exchangers functioning as gates for calcium access and unencumber. on condition that calcium is this kind of flexible messenger the sphere of calcium signaling is consistently and speedily increasing. This e-book studies the newest advancements in calcium signaling by means of prime specialists within the box. it's a state of the art precis of our current wisdom during this fast growing to be box and gives perception into the extraordinary development made in lots of components of calcium signaling, whereas reminding us of the way a lot continues to be discovered.

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Extra info for Calcium: A Matter of Life or Death

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Biochem. 56, 395–433. 3. P. (1999) in E. B. Klee (Eds) Calcium as a Cellular Regulator, Oxford University Press, pp. 3–27. 4. , Branca, D. and Brini, M. (2001) Crit. Rev. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 36, 107–260. 5. Carafoli, E. (2004) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 1115–1122. 6. J. (1993) Nature 361, 315–325. 7. H. E. (1973) J. Biol. Chem. 248, 3313–3326. 8. , and Kretsinger, R. (2000) in E. Carafoli and J. Krebs (Eds) Calcium Homeostasis, Springer, Berlin, pp. 30–58. 9. B. C. (1982) Adv. Protein Chem.

The first is the ability of Ca2+ to act both as a first and as a second messenger. , Ca2+ itself may control the generation and the regulation of the informxation it carries. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, the Ca2+ signal has a clear ambivalent character: although essential to the Fig. 1. The experiment of Ringer on the contraction of isolated frog ventricles [1]. (A) Traces in which the blood mixture was replaced by saline at the point indicated by the arrow. 5 ml of calcium chloride to the medium in which the heart was suspended.

Carafoli Ca2+ to covalently bound EF-hand motifs, to a separate EF-hand subunit, but also to two Ca2+-binding sites of novel type located close to the catalytic center. The two dimeric calpains designated as m and m are ubiquitous. Other tissue-specific calpains, by contrast, are monomeric and may not contain the endogenous EF-hand motifs. However, as they still contain the non-EF-hand Ca2+-binding sites, they are still likely to be controlled by Ca2+. Calpains are regulatory proteases that do not demolish protein substrates com­ pletely; rather, they remove from them limited peripheral portions, frequently leading to their activation.

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