By Martin S. Silberberg
Nice textbook for individuals enrolled as a rule Chemistry I and II in university.
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Extra info for Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, Fifth Edition
3C shows, that increase in potential energy is converted to kinetic energy when the particles move together again. Also, when two positive (or two negative) particles are pushed toward each other, their potential energy increases, and when they are allowed to move apart, that increase in potential energy is changed into kinetic energy. Like the weight above the ground and the balls connected by a spring, charged particles move naturally toward a position of lower energy, which is more stable. The chemical potential energy of a substance results from the relative positions and the attractions and repulsions among all its particles.
Let’s apply this approach in a unit-conversion problem. 15/ft. What is the price of the wire? PLAN We know the length of wire in centimeters and the cost in dollars per foot ($/ft). We can find the unknown price of the wire by converting the length from centimeters to inches (in) and from inches to feet. 15) gives us the equivalent quantities to construct the factor that converts feet of wire to price in dollars. The roadmap starts with the known and moves through the calculation steps to the unknown.
In a series of careful measurements, Lavoisier heated mercury calx, decomposing it into mercury and a gas, whose combined masses equaled the starting mass of calx. The reverse experiment—heating mercury with the gas—re-formed the mercury calx, and again, the total mass remained constant. Lavoisier proposed that when a metal forms its calx, it does not lose phlogiston but rather combines with this gas, which must be a component of air. To test this idea, Lavoisier heated mercury in a measured volume of air to form mercury calx and noted that only fourfifths of the air volume remained.