By Robert Christie

An updated perception into the chemistry in the back of the colour of the dyes and pigments that make our international so colourful. The huge and balanced insurance provided during this publication makes it perfect for college kids and graduates.

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The three additive primaries, red, green and blue are equally spaced around the colour circle. The three subtractive primaries, yellow, magenta and cyan are located between the pairs of additive primaries from which they are obtained by mixing. The second attribute, chroma, increases with distance from the centre of the circle. The third attribute, lightness, requires a third dimension that is at right angles to the plane of the colour circle. The achromatic colours, white and black, are located at either extreme of the lightness scale.

In 1928, this concept was incorporated by Dilthey and Witzinger in their refinement of Witt’s theory of chromophores and auxochromes. They recognised that the chromophore is commonly an electron-withdrawing group, that auxochromes are usually electron-releasing groups and that The Physical and Chemical Basis of Colour 27 they are linked to one another through a conjugated system. In essence, the concept of the donor—acceptor chromogen was born. e. a shift of the absorption band to longer wavelength, might be obtained by increasing the electron-withdrawing power of the chromophore, by increasing the electron-releasing power of the auxochromes and by extending the length of the conjugation.

Brightness of colour is expressed by the width of the visible absorption band. This bandwidth is determined by the distribution of vibrational energy levels superimposed on the electronic ground and excited state energy levels. Broadening of the absorption bands may be caused in a number of ways. For example, an increase in the number and spread of energies of bond vibrations will generally lead to broader absorption bands. This argument may be used to provide an explanation as to why the relatively simple structure of heterocyclic azo dyes such as compound 18 and 19 give brighter blue colours than the multi-substituted carbocyclic analogues such as compound 17 with its increased number of vibra- 44 Chapter 2 tional levels.

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