By Rene Van Grieken, Koen Janssens

This booklet regularly includes contributions through the invited teachers on the seventh foreign convention on Non-Destructive trying out and Micro-Analysis for the Diagnostics and Conservation of the Cultural and Environmental historical past. The members have all been selected for his or her person reputations and the standard in their examine, but additionally simply because they characterize a box deemed hugely vital. for that reason, this e-book provide balanced assurance of the parts which are such a lot suitable in non-destructive trying out and micro-analysis within the realm of cultural historical past. The research tools give you the scientific composition of cultural artifacts to clarify their provenance, the speed of alteration because of publicity to the surroundings and the effectiveness of conservation and recovery ideas. The ideas are in part or totally non-destructive, are moveable, or let learn of alternative elements of a heterogeneous murals.

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On the contrary the statue of F. Messina exhibits a metallographic structure typical of a rough primary cast alloy, following the modern taste of the artist (Fig. 5). 3 CONCLUSIONS The three monuments quoted above exhibit different corrosion rates, depending on the treatment of the surface and on the exposure to the outdoor climate and respectively to the marine environment. The Rp method represents a valuable, experimented procedure, which must be carried out with particular skillfulness, due to the complex and variable patina composition and surface structure.

Raman in 1928. For these experiments he used sunlight. Later mercury arch lamps were involved and pure liquids were examined, requiring 600 ml of liquid and 24 hours accumulation time to record a spectrum. g. the introduction of lasers, charge-coupled device (CCD) detectors, Fourier-transform (FT) instrumentation, …) sample requirements and accumulation times drastically decreased and Raman spectroscopy became increasingly important in molecular spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy became accessible to research groups, performing molecular analysis in different domains, such as pharmaceutical analysis, semiconductor research, geological applications, biochemistry, etc.

Overview of some pigments and their TXRF key-elements. Vermilion Realgar Hematite Red lead Azurite Smalt Prussian blue HgS As2 S3 Fe2 O3 Pb3 O4 CuCO3 · Cu(OH)2 Co-glass Fe4 [Fe(CN)6 ]3 Hg As Fe Pb Cu Co Fe Lead white Titanium white Permanent white Massicot Lead-tin yellow Chrome yellow Yellow ochre 2PbCO3 · Pb(OH)2 TiO2 BaSO4 PbO Pb2 SnO4 · Sn2 SiO7 2PbSO4 · PbCrO4 Fe2 O3 · nH2 O Pb Ti Ba Pb Pb + Sn Pb + Cr Fe 3 SELECTED TOPICS In the next paragraphs this approach will be illustrated by means of two examples.

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