By Theodore J. Stein, Tina L. Rzepnicki (auth.)

All international locations confront the matter of supplying for established, missed, and 1 abused little ones. whereas the precise type of institutional reaction will vary in terms of a country's political and fiscal constitution, its tradition and its culture, a similar normal different types of baby welfare providers were built 2 all over the place. Literature from the U.S., Canada, and several other Western eu international locations displays a shared trouble approximately youngsters who dwell in unplanned, alternative care preparations and a starting to be reputation of the significance of three making everlasting plans for those young children. the yank reaction to this challenge took form within the early Seventies while govt on the neighborhood, country, and four federal degrees undertook to fund permanency making plans initiatives. Permanency making plans initiatives have been charged with constructing and checking out approaches that will raise the possibility that youngsters might circulation out of alternative care preparations into everlasting kinfolk houses both via recovery to their organic households, termination of parental rights and next adoption, court docket appointment of a felony parent, or deliberate emancipation for older kids. long term foster care, if it used to be a deliberate consequence supported by means of written agreements among foster mom and dad and baby care organizations, was once famous as a suitable alternative for a few youngsters. 2 choice MAKING IN baby WELFARE Permanency making plans initiatives have had a right away impression at the important points of social paintings perform in baby welfare.

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The data elements shown in each category are a sample of items recorded. The subject family is identified by name, address, and telephone number; the age of the child who is the subject of the report is recorded as is the parent's primary language. The reception worker asks for the name of the child's school, the child's teacher, the name and address of the family doctor or local clinic, and whether the reporter can identify others who may have information that is pertinent to the report. The reason for the report, the child's whereabouts at the time of the report, when the incident being reported came to the caller's attention, and how often the events being reported were observed are recorded next.

276. It seems reasonable to suggest that any single focus taken can create a bias that may negatively affect case outcomes. Thus, an overemphasis on strengths can result in missing important information regarding family weaknesses. 35. , p. 39. 36. , pp. 70,71. 37. , p. 244. 38. , p. 118. 39. , p. 169. 40. , p. 122. 41. , p. 123. 42. , 1968). 43. , ch. 5. 44. : The Children's Defense Fund, 1978). JUDGMENT AND DECISION MAKING 33 45. Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act, op cit. 46. : 1346 Connecticut Avenue Northwest).

However, this is no guarantee that information gathered will be accurate. It is still possible that observed discrepancies in behavior will be dismissed as irrelevant-as inconsequential variants on a norm-if our causal explanations are not subject to modification. As we pointed out above, perseverance of belief is very strong. People do have a tendency to pick and choose from evidence, selecting out those data that confirm their initial beliefs. JUDGMENT AND DECISION MAKING 27 Summary Investigations of child welfare practice have not uncovered a constant set of principles that guide practitioners in making decisions.

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