By David J. Barber, Philip G. Meredith (auth.)

This monograph has its origins in a two-day assembly with a similar name held in London, England within the spring of 1987. the assumption for the assembly got here from contributors of the united kingdom Mineral and Rock Physics crew. It was once held less than the auspices of, and made attainable via the beneficiant aid of, the Mineralogical Society of serious Britain and eire. extra monetary counsel was once supplied through ECC overseas pIc and the Cookson team pIc. The goals of the London assembly have been to survey the present kingdom of information approximately deformation strategies in non-metallic fabrics and to collect either specialists and not more skilled Earth scientists and ceramicists who as a rule had little touch yet shared universal pursuits in deformation mechanisms. This monograph has comparable goals and, certainly, so much of its authors have been keynote audio system on the assembly. for this reason, lots of the contributions comprise a overview point as well as the presentation and dialogue of recent effects. In adopting this structure, the editors desire that the monograph will supply a important state of the art sourcebook, either to energetic researchers and likewise to graduate scholars simply beginning within the proper fields.

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G. McLintock & Walsh 1962). 25) This criterion has the advantage that it takes account of intermediate principal stresses and that it provides a more realistic ratio of the uniaxial compressive strength to the uniaxial tensile strength of 12. 26) where a and (3 are constants that depend on the Poisson ratio and the aspect ratios of the elliptical cavities. For example, for the special case of pennyshaped cracks, a = ·2(2 - p) 2 and {3 = P (4 - p)(2 - p) 2. 26) implies that crack initiation is independent of the intermediate principal stress.

Experimental observations reviewed earlier support this view. In general, once the applied stress intensity at the tip of a favourably oriented flaw or microcrack becomes high enough, then extension will occur. 4)). In principle, integration of the area under a stress intensity factor - crack velocity curve (see Fig. 1) can provide all of the information necessary to predict the time-, rate-, and environment-dependent tensile fracture strength of brittle materials (Evans 1972). 18) where the subscripts i and c denote initial and critical conditions respectively.

Cruden's (1970,1974) model was based on the growth of a distribution of microcracks. 15», and then summed the results over all possible angles. In this way, Cruden was able qualitatively to predict the dependence of creep rate on stress, temperature, and time. Using a rather different approach, a number of workers (Mizutani et al. 1977, Soga et al. 1979, Spetzler et al. 1981) have developed a model of compressive rock failure that attempts to predict fracture strength as a function of 25 FRACTURE AND FAILURE OF BRITTLE POLYCRYSTALS time, strain rate, humidity, and temperature, assuming that brittle failure occurs as a result of the interaction of numerous microcracks formed under the combined influence of applied stress and moisture at crack tips.

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