By Lynda Lange (auth.), Sandra Harding, Merrill B. Hintikka (eds.)

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Extra info for Discovering Reality: Feminist Perspectives on Epistemology, Metaphysics, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science

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The rationale is that SES is not a measure of individual standing but a measure of social access or of offsprings’ economic potential. The assumption is that for social activities and economic prediction the family functions as a unit and that the adult male’s influence is primary [6]. However‚ most political action is individual action. Only individuals vote or are selected for office. It would seem appropriate‚ then‚ that political scientists consider individuals as individuals. 2 Therefore‚ even if one accepts conventional measures of SES as adequate for certain kinds of social analysis‚ one can still argue that those measures are inappropriate for the prediction of political and/or governmental participation [7].

Fortenbaugh’s answer would seem to be, “because it is often overruled by her emotions or alogical side” (p. 138). But doesn’t that happen in the case of free men also? Yes, the reply must go (see p. 19 above), but that doesn’t mean that free men are to occupy subordinate roles, for in them the deliberative capacity is by nature with authority even if it doesn’t always exercize it. So it must be that in women, on the other hand, the deliberative capacity is by nature without authority. But how do we know that?

This is where we come full circle: Because men rule women (and also because masters rule slaves, because tutors rule children). In fact the rule of men over women provides us with a means of understanding the kind of relationship among parts of the soul; and, coupled with the assumption that men represent the rational element and women represent the irrational element, it provides us with a means of establishing that in the soul the rational element rules the irrational. Aristotle took a short-cut in his journey from his metaphysics, from his philosophical psychology, to his political theory: he built the particular relationships of authority he wished to justify on the basis of the metaphysics, into the metaphysics itself.

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