By Walter Doerfler, Petra Böhm

It has turn into obvious that the genomes of many organisms are characterised by way of certain styles of DNA methylation which could fluctuate from genome section to genome section and cellphone sort to phone variety. those styles could be instrumental in deciding upon cellphone variety and serve as. therefore, it's not incredible that reviews at the function of DNA methylation now occupy heart degree in lots of fields of biology and medication akin to developmental biology, genetic imprinting, genetic sickness, tumor biology, gene remedy, cloning of organisms and others. once more, simple learn in molecular biology has supplied the basic beginning for investigations of biomedical problems.

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54 4 Epigenetic Candidate Diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 . . . . . . . . 47 47 47 50 51 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Abstract Epigenetics is the study of genes during development. Gene expression states are set by transcriptional activators and repressors and locked in by cell-heritable chromatin states. Inappropriate expression or repression of genes can change developmental trajectories and result in disease.

PcG proteins associated with these complexes are present in Drosophila and vertebrates but are absent in plants and C. elegans. The other complex (PRC2) contains the PcG proteins Extra sex combs (ESC), Enhancer of zeste [E(Z)] and Suppressor of zeste 12 [SU(Z)12] as core components. These proteins have been found in all multicellular model organisms from plants to mammals. In the following sections we focus on recent progress regarding molecular interactions and enzymatic activities of the PcG complexes and associated proteins and correlate them with the known antagonistic activities of TrxG proteins.

24 2 The Dnmt2 Methyltransferase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 3 DNA Methylation-Dependent Chromatin Structures . . . . . . . . 26 4 The Methyl-DNA Binding Protein MBD2/3 . . . . . . . . . . . 27 5 A Functional DNA Methylation System in Drosophila . . . . . . . 29 6 Chromatin-Based Maintenance of Gene Expression . . . . . . . . 31 7 Characterization of PcG/TrxG Complexes . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 8 PC-Containing PcG Complexes and the Compaction of Chromatin .

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