By Michael Winter

Michael Winter's publication offers a wide ranging view of Ottoman Egypt from the overthrow of the Mamluk Sultanate in 1517 to Bonaparte's invasion of 1798 and the start of Egypt's smooth interval. Drawing on archive fabric, chronicle and commute debts from Turkish, Arabic, Hebrew and ecu assets in addition to up to date study, this finished social heritage appears on the dynamics of the Egyptian-Ottoman courting and the ethnic and cultural clashes which characterized the interval. The conflicts among Ottoman pashas and their Egyptian matters and among Bedouin Arabs and the extra sedentary inhabitants are awarded, as is the position of girls during this interval and the significance of the doctrinal conflict of Islam either orthodox and renowned, Christianity and Judaism. Winter's vast survey of a posh and dynamic society attracts out the crucial topic of the emergence, from a interval of ethnic and non secular rigidity, of an Egyptian cognizance primary to Egypt's later improvement.

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Extra info for Egyptian Society Under Ottoman Rule 1517-1798

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29 The army was made up of seven units, two infantry regiments (ojaqs), and five cavalry regiments. The infantry regiments were the Mustahfizan-i Qal‛a-i Misir (the Guardians of the Citadel) known as Janissaries, and the ‛Azeban or ‛Azab; The mounted regiments (the Sipahi) included two elite units, the Müteferriqa and Chavu shes, who were the best paid, and the Cherakise ojaği (a Circassian unit), the Gönüllüyan (volunteers) and the Tüfenkjiyan (musketeers). The Qanun-name reveals the principles of the Ottoman policy toward Egypt in general and the army in particular.

A group of eight Janissary officers, supported by the ‛Azab, attempted to remove him. Initially they were successful, and Ifranj Ahmad was forced to accept the rank of bey, but eventually he was able to return to his original position in the regiment. The military forces in Egypt split into two hostile camps, but Ifranj Ahmad was just an excuse for the strife. The main reason was the resentment of the other regiments, primarily the ‛Azab, at the privileged position and the profits the Janissaries were enjoying.

The Egyptians often felt that the Turks were bad Muslims. 13 30 EGYPTIAN SOCIETY UNDER OTTOMAN RULE, 1517–1798 The absorption of the Arab lands into the empire forced the Egyptians and other Arabic-speaking people to revise their self-image. Under the Mamluks, they defined themselves solely in religious terms. The Mamluks were called Turks, yet their Turkishness was more functional than a birthright; it differentiated them from their subjects. 14 Only the Mamluk elite could use Turkish names, and only they spoke Turkish, although it had not been the mother tongue of the Circassians, who came to power in the Mamluk Sultanate in 1382.

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