By Joyce E. Salisbury

While did girls first develop into rulers, athletes, squaddies, heroines, and villains? They consistently have been, observes historian Judith Salisbury. From Mesopotamian priestesses and poets to Egyptian queens and consorts, "there used to be by no means a time while girls didn't perform all facets of society.

Salisbury tells the tales of one hundred fifty ladies from the traditional international, starting from the very recognized, resembling Cleopatra VII, immortalized through Hollywood, to the hardly remembered, resembling the Roman poet Nossis. Writing for a basic viewers, Salisbury starts through portray each one girl into her ancient context, then recounts every one woman's tale, describing the alternatives she made as she searched for happiness, wealth, strength, or health and wellbeing for herself and her family--stories very like our personal. In entries on common themes--clothing, cosmetics, paintings, sexuality, prostitution, gynecology--Salisbury analyzes the commonalties within the lives of those ladies of antiquity from a cross-cultural point of view.

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Robert Graves. New York: Penguin, 1979. D. 15–59) The Julio-Claudian dynasty of emperors defined their legitimacy to rule based on their relationship to the great Caesar Augustus, who had been agrippina the younger 3 the first emperor of the Romans. This significant tie of blood made the female relatives highly important, because through marriage with them and creation of heirs one could legitimately claim the imperial throne. At least one woman, however, was not content to be the passive conduit of imperial power; she wanted to rule in her own right—at least as regent.

For example, there was a marker by one of the Athenian gates that was said to mark the grave of the Amazon Antiope, and there were several other tombs farther from Athens that were explained as the burial places of Amazons who had died while fleeing the battle against Theseus. Art, too, revealed the popularity of the legend, for there were many portrayals of Amazon women in sculptures and vase paintings. Why was this legend so popular, and what did it mean for the ancient Greeks who happily repeated the stories?

In their advocacy of chastity, the authors of the Acts make villains of suitors, husbands, fathers, and even occasionally mothers who stand for the social life of marriage. Thecla (see Thecla) rejects her mother’s entreaties and her suitor’s pressure to follow Paul in chastity. In The Acts of Peter, the apostle has converted many women, including the beautiful Xanthippe. Her husband was “filled with fury and passionate love for Xanthippe, and amazed that she would not even sleep in the same bed with him, was raging like a wild beast and wished to do away with Peter; for he knew that he was responsible for her leaving his bed.

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