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As congestion is relatively rare, why does this behaviour require a response from network operators? Tight control of performance is essential for reconciling network profitability with customer satisfaction, and an important contributor to the latter is the perceived fairness. While emergency calls are already protected against other telephony traffic, through trunk reservation (TR) or other controls, other calls that may still be seen by customers as urgent or essential are not. It is important that these calls are not unduly denied access to network resource during periods of congestion.

The standard definition of offered traffic is of course the traffic that would be carried if the system were of infinite size (so there is no blocking and hence no redials). In the presence of redialling traffic streams, however, it is useful also to introduce the quantity which is the total of the mean call hold time × the rate of call attempts. We will refer to these two quantities as the ‘underlying offered traffic’ and ‘effective offered traffic’, respectively. 1 shows the traffic acceptance ratio obtained for the link at different loads and traffic mixes.

1 Introduction The PSTN has been around for a long time and its performance is well understood. The technology is mature and the issues regarding the management of the network are, for the most part, also well understood. We can see this in the excellent performance and network availability delivered by the PSTN — a record that is to be envied by some younger network technologies. The world does not stand still, however, and the loads placed on the PSTN change, together with our expectations of what the network could deliver.

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