By Leslie Pray, Laura Pillsbury, Maria Oria, Food and Nutrition Board, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Institute of Medicine, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council

"The U.S. foodstuff approach offers many merits, no longer the least of that's a secure, nutritious and constant foodstuff provide. besides the fact that, an analogous approach additionally creates major environmental, public healthiness, and different bills that in most cases aren't famous and never accounted for within the retail expense of nutrients. those comprise greenhouse fuel (GHG) emissions, soil erosion, pollution, and their environmental results, the move of antibiotic resistance from nutrients animals to human, and different human overall healthiness results, together with foodborne health problems and protracted disorder. a few exterior expenses that are sometimes called externalities are accounted for in ways in which don't contain expanding the cost of nutrients. yet many usually are not. they're borne involuntarily by means of society at huge. a greater knowing of exterior bills might support selection makers in any respect levels of the lifestyles cycle to extend the advantages of the U.S. nutrients process even extra. The Institute of medication (IOM) and the nationwide study Council (NRC) with aid from the U.S. facilities for ailment keep an eye on and Prevention (CDC) convened a public workshop on April 23-23, 2012, to discover the exterior expenses of foodstuff, methodologies for quantifying these charges, and the restrictions of the methodologies. The workshop used to be meant to be an information-gathering task basically. Given the complexity of the problems and the extensive parts of workmanship concerned, workshop displays and discussions signify just a small section of the present wisdom and are in no way entire. the point of interest was once at the environmental and well-being affects of nutrition, utilizing externalities as a foundation for dialogue and animal items as a case research. The purpose was once to not quantify charges or advantages, yet really to put the foundation for doing so. a tremendous objective of the workshop was once to spot info resources and methodologies required to acknowledge and estimate the prices and advantages of environmental and public health and wellbeing results linked to the U.S. nutrients approach. It used to be expected that the workshop would supply the foundation for a follow-up consensus examine of the topic and primary activity of the consensus research might be to improve a framework for a full-scale accounting of the environmental and public overall healthiness results for all nutrition items of the U.S. foodstuff procedure. Exploring wellbeing and fitness and Environmental expenditures of foodstuff: Workshop precis offers the root for a follow-up making plans dialogue concerning participants of the IOM nutrients and food Board and the NRC Board on Agriculture and typical assets and others to enhance the scope and parts of workmanship wanted for a larger-scale, consensus learn of the subject"--Publisher's description.  Read more... creation -- The economics of nutrients costs -- knowing measures and methods -- studying social and ecological charges and advantages -- Attaching price to bills and merits -- Exploring bills and merits -- Reflecting at the course ahead

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Exploring Health and Environmental Costs of Food: Workshop Summary 3-16 EXPLORING HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS OF FOOD model assumes, how should externality be defined? Will the study really be about externalities, or will it be about consequences? Why focus on externalities? Is it because, if all externalities could be internalized, then the outcome would be efficient? While that may be the case in a simple economic model, it is not true in the real world. In the real world, nonmarket influences affect how people behave.

IMPACT OF THE FOOD SYSTEM ON HEALTH INEQUALITIES3 “I think throughout this workshop, we should be saying not just ‘cost’ generically, but ‘cost to whom,’” said Steve Wing. In Wing’s opinion, many external costs to the food system are strongly related to health inequalities, which he defined as differences in morbidity, mortality, or health and well-being among people within a population or between populations. Wing described the various types of health inequalities that have been associated mostly with animal production, 3 This section summarizes the presentation of Steven Wing.

But with these benefits come some concerns about the living conditions of the animals in the new meat production systems. Jayson Lusk discussed recently implemented animal welfare regulations; the potential costs and benefits of such regulations; and how to measure and value animal welfare. Animal Welfare Legislation Many animal welfare regulations are state level, mostly state ballot initiatives and, in some cases, state legislation. For example, several states have banned gestation crates7 or battery cages8 in agricultural production, including three of the top egg-producing states (Ohio, California, Michigan).

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