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By Oliver Richmond
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Additional info for Failed statebuilding : intervention and the dynamics of peace formation
Abbreviations BRICS Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa CES Center for Exchange and Solidarity COIN counterinsurgency strategy DDR Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration ECOSOC UN Economic and Social Council IFIs International Financial Institutions IMF International Monetary Fund INGOs international non-governmental organisations IOs international organisations IR International Relations LTTE The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam MDG Millennium Development Goals NGOs non-governmental organisations OECD-DAC OECD Development Assistance Committee OSCE Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe PBC UN Peacebuilding Commission RAMSI Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands SSR Security Sector Reform UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNDPKO UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations UNMIK UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo UNTAC UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia USAID US Agency for International Development WTO World Trade Organization INTRODUCTION The Limits of Peacebuilding and Statebuilding THE LESSON OF the last twenty or so years of intervention to build a liberal peace and the modern state is that great plans often go awry.
25 Political mobilisation for peace on a mass grassroots scale, or in a more fragmented and hidden form, constructs legitimacy. This should be mirrored in the state and its institutions, and in the international norms the international community recycles as security, development, citizenship, rights and responsibilities. Peace emerges as a political process from the grassroots to the international level. International legitimacy should therefore reflect a far broader post-colonial (meaning derived from subaltern rather than state-level actors) set of norms than the Western-dominated ‘cosmopolitanism’ that currently exists.
Much of what I was told over the next ten years spent on the island confirmed this stereotype. It seemed that the will of the people was reflected by politicians whose paranoia about status, territory, sovereignty and security allowed them publicly to decry peace in favour of victory, often referring to justice and international law as the reason for a frozen peace process. International actors were also seduced by this view. It is still repeated by analysts, whether Cypriot or not. This victory was endlessly deferred until some mythical future when a Greek or Turkish ‘power’ would arise and drive the other into the sea on the island.