By Bjørn Jamtveit, Bruce W. D. Yardley (auth.), Bjørn Jamtveit, Bruce W. D. Yardley (eds.)

This publication represents the complaints of the ninth written through a really energetic staff of physicists at Kongsberg seminar, held on the Norwegian Mining the collage of Oslo - physicists drawn to Museum positioned within the urban of Kongsberg approximately complicated structures commonly and geo-like structures 70 km Southwest of Oslo. The Kongsberg district specifically. is understood for varied Permian vein deposits of The content material of the ebook is prepared into 3 local silver, and mining job within the region lasted significant components following the introductory bankruptcy. for greater than three hundred years, eventually ceasing in 1957. Chapters 2 to 7 basically deal with the function of fluids the former 8 Kongsberg seminars have been in particular geological environments, starting from excited by ore-forming procedures and all of those sedimentary basins (Chapters 2-3) to touch have been prepared by way of Professor Arne Bj0rlykke, now metamorphic/hydrothermal eventualities (Chapters director of the Norwegian Geological Survey. 4-5) and local metamorphic settings (Chapters considering the fact that process-orientated study has a tendency to wreck 6-7). the next 4 chapters (8-11) concentration down the conventional boundaries among the several on quite a few houses of fluid-rock structures that geological disciplines, this seminar has continuously are serious in controlling movement and delivery been a gathering aspect for individuals with a spread via rocks. those comprise: mineral solubility of geological backgrounds.

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In the shallow part where the rocks are mostly ductile, faults tend to develop clay smears and are not very permeable. During tectonic uplift fractures may remain open but then there is normally no compaction. The properties of fault planes depend very much on the timing of tectonic deformation and the burial diagenetic processes which determine the rock properties. to one another. The properties of the fault planes depend on the external forces (gravitational or tectonic) and on the material properties of the rocks at the time of deformation.

Faulting and fracturing in Palaeogene mudstones has been inferred from seismic lines also at greater depth in the North Sea (Cartwright, 1994a,b and Chapter 3, this volume). Mudstones normally have high porosity at shallow depth and are, when not carbonate- or silica-cemented, highly ductile and plastic. Prior to severe mechanical compaction the structure of clays is characterized by poorly orientated clay particles forming a 'house of cards structure' (Rosenqvist, 1953). Shear stress resulting in faults will cause a reorientation of clay particles along the fault plane, thus reducing the shear strength.

1976) or smedite dissolution/illite precipitation (d. , 1984). When smedite dissolves and illite precipitates, the crystal size is increased thus reducing the specific surface area and tortuosity. Dewatering of shales is very slow as long as smedite is the dominant clay mineral and illitization is usually accompanied by a very strong redudion in porosity. The kaolinite-illite and also to some extent the smedite-illite readion depends on the 21 availability of potassium feldspar and it releases water (Fig.

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