By P. R. Chari, Pervaiz Iqbal Cheema, Stephen P. Cohen
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Extra info for Four Crises and a Peace Process: American Engagement in South Asia
The Pakistanis repeatedly demanded strong security guarantees from Washington, arguing that they would obviate the need for a nuclear program (although the Pakistanis also maintained the fiction that their program was entirely peaceful). S. officials, however, were not at all inclined to provide such assistance on terms dictated by regional allies, at least at short notice and without consideration of American strategy. Subsequently, in the aftermath of the 1998 nuclear tests, Pakistan again raised the possibility of an attack on its nuclear facilities.
1984–present: Siachen Glacier dispute Proximate origin and type Indian military commander seizes glacier. Resolution Unresolved, but escalation limited by human and material costs and secondary strategic importance of territory; agreements concluded in 1989 and 1992, not endorsed by political leadership. Consequence Siachen importance largely symbolic; many studies show that technical verification of a pullback is possible; also schemes to turn Siachen into a highaltitude “peace park” have been suggested.
Three others of this nature are also notable, the most important fanned by massive Indian support for the East Pakistani separatist movement. As already mentioned, it erupted in a major war and concluded with the creation of Bangladesh. Of the other two, one was related to a Khalistan/Sikh separatist movement raging between 1984 and 1992, which caused enormous disruption in several north Indian cities (including Delhi), fomented a military uprising of Sikh soldiers, and led to the assassination of Indira Gandhi at the hands of her Sikh bodyguards.