Staff be aware: although it comes at once from Ebscohost, it really is their reflowable conversion (and no longer performed very well); retail flag removed.

This booklet is a scientific and old exploration of the philosophical importance of grammar. within the first 1/2 the 20th century, and particularly within the writings of Frege, Husserl, Russell, Carnap and Wittgenstein, there has been sustained philosophical mirrored image at the nature of grammar, and at the relevance of grammar to metaphysics, common sense and technological know-how.

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1987) 'Frege on Truth and Reference', Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 28: 132–8.  Kindred distinctions can be found earlier in the Port­Royal Logic, in medieval theories of suppositio, and earlier still in Stoic accounts of the meaning of names.  In this essay, I shall explain Frege's result.  How is this puzzle to be resolved?  We can now express the assumption as the following substitution principle: (3) If r(α) = r(β), then Sα and Sα/β have the same cognitive value.  We substitute 'the evening star' for 'the morning star' in (2) to get (1), and by (3), the two sentences must have the same cognitive value.

But in the case of synthetic statements, such as our sample 'a is green', any such circularity certainly is vicious. 38 De Puritate Artis Logicae (1955): 9, 7–16.  See here Spade (1996): 148f.  From the map it is immediately clear, given that neither implication can be strengthened to a biconditional, that being acquainted with the set of green things is not sufficient, and that having de re acquaintance with all the green things is not necessary, for understanding the concept­word 'green'.  One could not know the truth of the condition without actually being acquainted with a (that is, with b) and the account is not viciously regressive.

How Fregean the resulting position is may be disputed: Bell 1990.  The sentences 'Groundhogs are F' and 'Woodchucks are F' express the same propositions at the level of reference (are correlated with the same Carnapian intension), but do so in different ways (express different Fregean Thoughts); the sentences 'There are witches' and 'There are wizards' express different propositions at the level of reference, for they are composed of items with different referents (Carnapian intensions): though they are materially equivalent in the actual world, they are not so in other possible worlds.

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