By Jon Orloff
In this booklet, now we have tried to provide a reference on excessive answer concentrated ion beams (FIBs) that would be worthwhile for either the consumer and the fashion designer of FIB instrumentation. we have now incorporated a mixture of conception and functions that appeared most precious to us.
The box of FIBs has complicated swiftly because the program of the 1st box emission ion resources within the early Nineteen Seventies. the advance of the liquid steel ion resource (LMIS) within the overdue Nineteen Sixties and early Nineteen Seventies and its program for FIBs within the overdue Seventies have ended in a strong instrument for study and for undefined. there were enormous quantities of papers written on many features of LMIS and FIBs, and an invaluable and informative booklet on those matters used to be released in 1991 through Phil Prewett and Grame Mair. simply because there were such a lot of new purposes and makes use of discovered for FIBs within the final ten years we felt that it used to be time for one more publication at the topic.
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Additional info for High Resolution Focused Ion Beams: FIB and its Applications: The Physics of Liquid Metal Ion Sources and Ion Optics and Their Application to Focused Ion Beam Technology
A theoretical model of a liquid metal ion source" Vacuum 34 (1984) 941]. 19) Here the term in brackets is the sum of the two radii of curvature of the liquid cone, which are of opposite sign: the radius of curvature of the end (where emission takes place) is positive; the radius of curvature of the side (shank) of the cone is negative. -40- PHYSICS OF LIQUID METAL ION SOURCES Since the emitter is operated in vacuum the ambient pressure Po was set equal to zero. If the viscous power dissipation is integrated with respect to time to find the energy loss, Ut - Uo = - ct>dt.
If the electric field strength is set equal to the field necessary for field evaporation, wh ich is ~ 10 to V1M, the radius for a liquid drop to field emit ions can be calculated. It is of the order of 2 nm for a field of 10 to V1M. If the surface tension of the liquid is too small, the drop will be tom apart before the field necessary for field evaporation can be attained. Practically, this means liquids with too small a surface tension will emit drops, while those with high surface tension will emit ions.
I(pAJ -49- 40 • , -e-, x 10 In needle (rough" 2-25 11m GJ. rEedle (roughl, 31-lm Go. needle (rolJ::lh), 10 11m GJ. needle (srroothl, 31Jffi In ari:aI copillcry, 56 11m Go eaical. 13. R. , "A theoretical model ofa liquid metal ion source" Vacuum 34 (1984) 941]. b) and c) show comparison ofthe data in a) with Mair's theory, shown by the solid lines. , "Theoretical determination of current-voltage curves for liquid metal ion sources," 1. Phys. 0: App\. l1 (1984) 2323]. experimentally by Shabalin [Shabalin, 1989].