By Stanford J. Shaw, Ezel Kural Shaw

Reform, Revolution and Republic: the increase of recent Turkey, 1808-1975 is the second one booklet of the two-volume historical past of the Ottoman Empire and sleek Turkey. It discusses the modernization of the Ottoman Empire through the 19th and early 20th centuries, the unfold of nationalism between its topic peoples, and the innovative adjustments in Ottoman associations and society that ended in the Empire's loss of life and the increase of the democratic Republic of Turkey. in keeping with large study within the Ottoman records in addition to Western assets, this quantity analyzes the exterior pressures, reform measures, institutional alterations, and highbrow pursuits that affected the heterogeneous Ottoman society throughout the Empire's final century. It concludes with an research of latest Turkey's constitutional and political buildings and significant household and overseas difficulties.

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Additional info for History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey: Volume 2, Reform, Revolution, and Republic: The Rise of Modern Turkey 1808-1975

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The artillery finally broke down the barracks' gates and enabled the troops to move in. The rebels found in the drill yard were slaughtered and the buildings set aflame, with all inside perishing (June 15, 1826). Strong measures followed to hunt out the remaining Janissaries in Istanbul and around the empire. The corps itself was abolished the next day, although to assuage popular feeling all those holding payroll tickets who had not been active or involved in the corps* misdeeds were allowed to continue collecting their revenues for the remainder of their lives, as had been promised earlier by the sultan.

His immediate solution was to rely on the support of the native ulema and artisan and merchant guild leaders as well as the sultan and Ottoman garrison against his Mamluk opponents, who were led by Muhammad Elfi Bey, a Mamluk protege of the British. The new governor fulfilled his financial obligations to Istanbul and at the same time applied judicious bribery in the sultan's court to frustrate the maneuvers of the British ambassador to have him transferred to Salonica (1806). Muhammad Ali then solidified his position by defeating the Mamluks and scattering their armies in the name of both the sultan and the people of Egypt.

But Mahmut II, ever the politician, feared that cutting off the incomes of thousands of persons so suddenly would stimulate a revolt. 7 The Conservative Reaction These measures stimulated the rise of conservative opposition to the sultan and his chief minister. Those called to serve in the new corps or to surrender their sinecure memberships in the old corps were indignant at the loss of their privileges. The old corps and the mass of the people were not deceived by the names attached to the new army, and they resented its presence.

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