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The analysis of the infinite-fringe interferogram confirms the above approximation. 2 Laser Drilling a Plastic During the process of a laser beam interaction with biological hard tissues, the excessive thermal fluxes may lead to the necrosis of the living matter. In particular, high thermal fluxes accompany the laser drilling deep and narrow channels in hard biological tissues. The process of drilling was modeled by means of the interaction of CO2 and Er:YAG focused laser beams with one of the popular transparent plastics (Plexiglas).

Usually Mach–Zehnder focused image holograms recorded on photographic films have relatively low carrier spatial frequencies. The only difference in comparison with the recording interferograms is that the spatial frequency of Mach–Zehnder holograms is higher: 10 < f < 50 lines × mm–1. The background interference pattern on a hologram is called the holographic fringe pattern or holographic grating; fringes of the pattern are called carrier or holographic. The correspondent width of Mach–Zehnder holographic fringes is significantly smaller (20 < d < 100 microns) than the characteristic widths of Mach–Zehnder interferograms.

6/2π. 7 mm is the averaged diameter of the jet. 22 × 103 cm3/g is the Gladstone–Dale constant for air, and Δρ is the change of air density. 82 × 10 –3 g × cm–3. An abrupt change in the air density can be observed in the vicinity of the target. The phase gradient in this region noticeably exceeds the gradient in the undisturbed region of the free micro jet. At the distance of one bright background fringe three interference fringes are observed, which means that air density enlarges up to Δρ ≈ 4 × 10 –3 g × cm–3 in the vicinity of the target’s surface.

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