Download How to Lie with Statistics by Darrell Huff PDF
By Darrell Huff
Darrell Huff runs the gamut of each popularly used kind of statistic, probes things like the pattern learn, the tabulation process, the interview process, or the way in which effects are derived from the figures, and issues up the numerous variety of dodges that are used to idiot instead of to inform.
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Extra resources for How to Lie with Statistics
These connectives are also used to tie together a variety of mathematical statements. A good understanding of these logical connectives will allow us to more easily understand and construct mathematical proofs. 2 1. 2. 3. 4. Using truth tables, show that ¬(P → Q) ⇔ (P ∧ ¬Q). Construct truth tables to show that (P ↔ Q) ⇔ (P → Q) ∧ (Q → P). Using truth tables, show that P ⇔ (¬P → (Q ∧ ¬Q)). Which of the following statements are true and which are false? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (π 2 > 9) → (π > 3). If 3 ≥ 2, then 3 ≥ 1.
Show that the following argument is invalid: (a) If x ≥ 2, then x ≥ 0. (b) x ≥ 0. Therefore, x ≥ 2. Solution. Assertion (a) is a true statement. Let x = 1. Thus (b) is also true, while the conclusion is false. So the argument is invalid. Example 6 (Converse Error). Show that the argument P→Q Q ∴P is invalid. 3 Valid and Invalid Arguments 23 Solution. Assign the truth values of P, Q to be F, T respectively. With this truth assignment we see that the conclusion is false while all of the premises are true.
Thus, the statement D(9, 27) is true and D(9, 5) is false. The domain of a predicate is just the collection of allowed values for the variable(s) in the predicate. So, the domain of the predicate T (x) is the collection of all people. 3). Example 1. Consider the three predicates P(x), E(x), and D(x, y) given by • P(x) symbolizes the statement “x is a prime number” • E(x) symbolizes the statement “x is even” • D(x, y) symbolizes the statement “x evenly divides y” where x and y represent integers.