By Rishab K. Gupta, Donald L. Morton (auth.), Fernando A. Salinas, Michael G. Hanna Jr. (eds.)
Immune Complexes and Human melanoma, the 15th quantity of Contem porary themes in Immunobiology, is a compilation of knowledge derived from contemporary experiences at the function of circulating immune complexes (CIC) within the patho genic manifestations of quite a few human cancers. Technical advancements within the detection of CIC in physique fluids have led to information that point out that CIC do ensue in numerous forms of melanoma. furthermore, tumor-associated antigens and antibodies were detected in immune complexes of melanoma sufferers' sera. till lately the precise function and medical relevance of immune complexes were the topic of discussion, partly a result of difficulties encountered in measuring immune complexes. yet those difficulties are being faced as extra exact dimension protocols are built. Technical refinements, besides strict protocols, have supplied proof of heterogeneity in CIC, an element that makes exact detection of immune complexes in melanoma sufferers tough. contemporary insights point out that the size of immune complexes in melanoma sufferers could be clinically worthy not just as a tumor marker, but in addition in regard to the deranged immune reaction of tumor-bearing hosts and different problems equivalent to nephrotic syndrome, immune anemias, and clotting dysfunction.
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There are various human cancers which actively synthesize particular attribute proteins akin to melanomas, thyroid melanoma and squamous phone carcinoma. Many melanoma researchers have in fact attempted to make use of this particular task as a key for the selective remedy of cancers. long ago for instance, the molecular hybrid compound of DOPA, a substrate of melanin, and nitrogen mustard N-oxide hydrochloride, a ctyotoxic anti-tumor drug, used to be synthesized as Melphalan and used to regard malignant cancer.
The complaints of this quantity characterize a list of a gathering within the Ettore Majorana heart in Erice, Sicily from 16-24 July, 1983. This used to be the 5th process the foreign institution of Urology and Nephrology, the fourth in a chain of conferences dedicated to diversified features of Urological Oncology.
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Despite this limitation they felt that the results of their investigation were sufficiently encouraging to continue their studies. Though a difference in recurrence rate between CIC-positive (75%) and CIC-negative (40%) patients was observed by Norris et al. (1980), the frequency of recurrence was not significantly different between the two groups because of the small number of melanoma patients in each group. Ruell et al. (l982) reported that of 160 melanoma patients who were clinically free of disease, CIC were detected at some time in 62 patients during their sequential follow-up.
1983). Kristensen et al. (l980) reported that 4/7 (57%) stage I melanoma patients who were CICpositive had a recurrence within the period of observation. No recurrence was observed in 16 stage I patients who were negative for CIC during the preoperative period. Only one of the 14 patients who were negative for CIC postoperatively, when clinically disease-free, had a recurrence. Gauci et al. (l978) also observed that increased levels of CIC are associated with tumor recurrence in malignant melanoma; however, concomitant infection may give rise to increased levels of CIC.
Interaction with Fc receptors, complement activation-which in turn affect their levels in the circulation (Mannik, 1980). The size of immune complexes is in turn dependent on the valence of the antigens, the class of the antibody, the ratio of antigen to antibody, the association constant of these reactants, and the concentration of antigen and antibody. Salinas et al. (1983) have provided evidence that the size of CIC in cancer patients is related to tumor burden, which in turn governs the concentration of antigen that is available for interaction with humoral antibodies.