By Benjamin C. Fortna

Drawing on a wide range of fundamental fabric, starting from archival reviews to textbooks and school room maps, Benjamin C. Fortna presents an in depth scholarly research of the Ottoman academic endeavour, revealing its interesting mixture of Western and indigenous impacts. concentrating on such key components as curricular swap, lifestyle, geography, and Islamic morality, Fortna provides new facts approximately education within the overdue Ottoman Empire and provides a brand new interpretation of its position within the historical past of the fashionable heart East.

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8d. per cwt, and accordingly, at that rate, the total value of the brass of 77,033 cwt 3q. 16lb. was £. 595,728. 15s. 5d. The plated ware was always entered by the merchants ad valorem, consequently the nominal value and the declared value were the same. In this second table, Turkey, as an importer of wrought brass and plated ware, is seen to have been above average (122 cwt 1q. and £. 161 New methods, tools, equipment and machines used in naval works New galleon-launching method Until the second half of the seventeenth century, the galleons were constructed in hangars or sheds called göz or çeflm (shed), completed on land and then launched to sea.

Therefore, on 8 November 1797, the fire pumps formerly misused or those required repair were fixed, arranged properly and readied for an emergency. Fire pumps provided from the Tulumbac› Oca¤› (Fire Department) at the naval arsenal only (not the ones on the ships or the ones required during the caulking process) were to be used in fires on land. 189 Nonetheless, documents show that the Ottomans were in search of new fire pumps to be used in naval services. They seemed keen to adopt newly invented fire pumps from foreign countries.

128 To sum up the process of shipbuilding in the Ottoman Empire, following the procurement of the required timber, first were the sternposts, second the keel and third the planking. After that, nails and screws were used as fastenings to keep them firm. Painting and details of timberwork followed. 129 Ottoman warships, like the ones in Europe, were composed of several decks. These can be listed from the top down in the following sequence: open deck (aç›k güverte), main deck (palavra), middle deck (orta kat), gun deck (top ambar›), orlop deck (tavlon) and lower orlop deck (kontratavlon)130 As for the physical disadvantages attributed to the Ottoman manof-wars by foreigners, it is said that they had intervals between decks higher than was usual in European ships, in order to allow the crew to wear their high and elaborate headgear.

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