By Emiliana Vegas
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Extra info for Incentives to Improve Teaching: Lessons from Latin America (Directions in Development)
Methodologically, they highlight a frequent lack of variation, of confounded and unobservable variables, and of mediating conditions. Practically, they assert that unless education is designed to function without the central role of the teacher, the question should not be whether teachers affect learning but how to maximize their effect. The debate on teacher quality aside, Latin America and many other parts of the world face a serious problem in education and teaching quality (Alvarez and Majmudar 2001; Eurydice 2004; Glewwe and Kremer forthcoming; Government of Chile 2003; Villegas-Reimers 1998; World Bank 2001).
Figlio, D. , and L. Getzler. 2002. ” NBER Working Paper 9307. National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, Mass. Figlio, D. , and J. Winicki. 2002. ” NBER Working Paper 9319. National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, Mass. , N. Ilias, and M. Kremer. 2003. ” NBER Working Paper 9671. National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, Mass. Hanushek, E. , J. F. Kain, D. M. O’Brien, and S. G. Rivkin. 2005. ” Stanford University, Stanford, Calif. Processed. Hoxby, C. , and A. Leigh. 2004. “Pulled Away or Pushed Out?
As mentioned in the Introduction, conducting impact evaluations of education programs is challenging given the impossibility of knowing what would have happened to those affected by the program in its absence. This evaluation problem plagues all social programs, and is particularly problematic when assignment of the program to participants is based on factors that could also affect the outcome of the program. Separating the effects on outcomes of variables that impact who (or what school) participates in a specific program from the program itself is known as the selection problem in the impact evaluation literature.