By Stephen Frederic Dale

This can be a examine of the actions and financial value of the Indian service provider groups that traded in Iran, significant Asia and Russia within the 17th and eighteenth centuries, and their function in the hegemonic alternate diaspora of the interval. the writer has made use of Russian fabric, hitherto principally overlooked, to spotlight the significance of those mercantile groups, and to problem the traditional view of worldwide financial historical past within the early sleek period. The ebook not just demonstrates the energy of Indian mercantile capitalism on the time, but in addition bargains a distinct perception into the social features of an expatriate neighborhood within the Volga-Caspian port of Astrakhan.

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Its coins retained a high level of purity but were slightly less heavy and production declined when trade imbalances reduced supplies of imported specie. 78 At the opposite end from India was Uzbek Turan whose coins weighed less than half the Mughul rupee even in the sixteenth century and were radically debased after the death of 'Abd Allah Khan II in 1598. This debasement, though, may have been partly due to a fragmentation of resources that accompanied the reassertion of appanage power in the seventeenth century.

Deyell, Living Without Silver (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1990), 58 n. 2. Fragner, "Social and Internal Economic Affairs" C H I, VI, 498 and J. V . , I, 489-517. John S. Deyell, "The Development of Akbar's Currency System and Monetary Integration of the Conquered Kingdoms," in J. F. , The Imperial Monetary System of Mughal India (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1987), 20 and 64—65 n. , 171-72, for examples of the European currency influx. Mukimova, Social Differentiation, 79. 64 Whether this ore had ever been systematically extracted in the Uzbek period is not known.

Matthee, "Politics and Trade," 275. See chapter 2 for discussions of Indian moneylending profits in Iran. Foster, The English Factories in India, 1637-1641, 242. " In 1664 a tuman equaled fifty silver 'abbasis. In the seventeenth century its ratio to the rupee varied from 24 to 30 rupees per tuman. Borgomale, Coins, Medals, and Seals, xv and 4. For discussion of "moneys of account," which also included the Russian rouble in the seventeenth century, see E. E. Rich and C. H. 59 Safavid Iran's chronic currency shortage was undoubtedly due in part to its lack of workable precious metal deposits, although that problem did not distinguish it significantly from Mughul India or Uzbek Turan.

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