By Jürgen Jahns, Stefan Helfert
This primary textbook on either micro- and nanooptics introduces readers to the technological improvement, actual historical past and key parts. the outlet chapters at the physics of sunshine are complemented through chapters on refractive and diffractive optical parts. The across the world popular authors current diversified tools of lithographic and nonlithographic fabrication of microoptics and introduce the characterization and checking out of microoptics. the second one a part of the e-book is devoted to optical microsystems and MEMS, optical waveguide buildings and optical nanostructures, together with pho. Read more...
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Extra info for Introduction to Micro- and Nanooptics
In the following, we will use the notation EP for the ﬁrst partial derivative with time, @E/@t, and ER D @2 E/@t 2 for the 11 12 1 Preliminaries second partial derivative. 50) are referred to as the inhomogeneous Maxwell’s equations since they contain the electric charge density and the current density, while the other two are called the homogeneous Maxwell’s equations. E and B are functions of three spatial coordinates (for example, the Cartesian coordinates x, y and z) and the time coordinate t.
In its integral form, one can express the second of Maxwell’s equations as “ Z D da D dV D q . 5. q is the electrical charge contained in the integration volume. For decreasing dimensions of the integration volume (and surface, respectively), q is approximated by the surface charge σ at the interface. One can then argue that at the interface of two dielectric media, the extension of surface charges into the media is so small that for Δz ! 0, the amount of surface charge between two dielectric media σ !
37 after a distance of z1/e D λ/2π. For example, if λ D 633 nm, then z1/e 100 nm. In other words, with conventional imaging optics and macroscopic working distances, it is not possible to resolve such ﬁne structures. Near-ﬁeld microscopy is a technique to collect the evanescent wave ﬁeld by a tapered optical ﬁber used as a nanoscale probe. H. Synge in the 1920s and ﬁrst demonstrated at visible wavelengths in the 1980s. NSOM (for near-ﬁeld optical scanning microscopy, also known under the acronym SNOM for scanning near-ﬁeld microscopy) can improve the classical resolution limit by one to two orders of magnitude.