By H. Fischbein

In writing the current publication i've got had in brain the subsequent ambitions: - To suggest a theoretical, complete view of the area of instinct. - to spot and arrange the experimental findings on the topic of instinct scattered in a wide selection of study contexts. - to bare the tutorial implications of the belief, built for technological know-how and arithmetic schooling. many of the current monographs within the box of instinct are usually all for theoretical debates - definitions, philosophical attitudes, ancient issues. (See, specially the works of untamed (1938), of Bunge (1 962) and of Noddings and Shore (1 984).) A remarkable exception is the publication through Westcott (1968), which mixes theoretical analyses with the author’s personal experimental reports. yet, to date, no try out has been made to spot systematically these findings, unfold in the course of the learn literature, which may give a contribution to the decoding of the mechanisms of instinct. quite often the suitable experiences don't refer explicitly to instinct. even if this time period is used it happens, frequently, as a self-evident, logic term.

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Pitz considers that people tend to overlook the uncertainty associated with the early stages of inference (Pitz, 1974; cf. Fischhoff, 1977). Another aspect is related to the retrieval process. People are not aware, generally, that memory is based on a reconstruction process rather than on a simple duplication. As a result, we tend to confer a degree of authenticity on our memories, which is higher than is really the case. Memories may be distorted by this reconstructive process under the influence of structural, social, motivational factors.

It is almost impossible to accept, intuitively, that simultaneity has no absolute meaning etc. Things appear to be still more complicated if one remembers that terms like “fact”, “truth, “evidence” have no absolute value. A sentence may be accepted as true by the scientific community in a certain period, it may also appear as intuitively acceptable to the layman, and yet one may discover later, in the history of science, that the sentence is contradicted by facts, previously not known, or rejected on logical grounds, previously not taken into account.

If only pure, formally stated concepts had been used, the answers would have been different. Certainly, one strives to identify and reject such apparently ready -made, pseudo -evident representations and interpretations. But, in fact, this aspiration is never, and cannot be, fully successful. Our symbolic behavior, like our practical behavior, needs to rely upon apparently existing, objective, unquestionable “facts”. The mechanisms of reasoning are, to a great extent, beyond direct, conscious control.

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