By Military Intelligence Division, War Department
Initially released in 1945 via the army Intelligence department, usa conflict division. This rfile addresses the subsequent subject matters concerning eastern protection opposed to amphibious operations: strategies and association; seashore stumbling blocks, barricades, and mines; fortifications and airfields; eastern coast protection weapons; dual-purpose, antiaircraft, and laptop weapons; and detection and verbal exchange. Please notice those are copies of significant ancient files which have been broadly wiped clean up via the writer. whereas each attempt has been made to make those books available they usually mirror the character of the age of the originals together with the typefaces, print caliber and occassional marginalia. those usually are not bad caliber OCR files with lacking pages or tracts illegible textual content.
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Extra info for Japanese defense against amphibious operations
In contrast, however, there have been many instances where camouflage was hasty and slip-shod, or little effort was made to hide installations from aerial observation. A most common Japanese method of camouflage utilizes natural cover and local vegetation, supplemented by artificial means only when necessary. Effective natural camouflage conforms in size and texture to the surroundings, and does not present a peculiar appearance. On Makin Island the Japanese depended mainly upon the thick natural cover of coconut trees and other vegetation.
A rectangular cross-section ditch was dug diagonally across Kwajalein, 12 feet wide and 6 to 7 feet deep. A similar ditch was under construction on Privilege Island at the time of the U. S. attack. -Tank trap just off a Betio beach. 3 to 5 feet. Aside from the ditches thus far encountered, Japanese defense doctrine describes ditches 6 feet, 7 inches in depth, with a trapezoidal cross-section 13 to 16 feet across the top and 6% feet across the bottom. If such a ditch is dug on a descending slope of from 15 to 30 degrees, an earth rampart is set up a little ahead of the ditch.
On Kwajalein, a shelter 21%/2 by 15 by 11 feet had a roof 3 feet thick and walls 2 feet thick. Five feet of earth and coral were piled on top the roof. One-inch steel bars, criss-crossed at 8 inch intervals both ways, constituted the reinforcement for the concrete. Small firing positions seldom are made entirely of concrete, but on Kwajalein a concrete sniper's post was found, 5 feet, 3 inches long, 4 feet, 4 inches wide, and 6 feet high. The roof was 6 inches thick, and the walls 6 to 12 inches.