By Peter A. Revell

Expanding numbers of joint revision and substitute operations force the call for for more suitable prostheses. This e-book reports advancements in joint alternative expertise, protecting the main pertinent fabrics technology and engineering concerns in addition to particular joints, scientific trial effects and sterilization options. It discusses biomechanics, tribology, and the chemical atmosphere of the physique. The textual content surveys fabrics and engineering of joint substitute. the second one a part of the ebook experiences particular fabrics, bearing surfaces and bone cements, as well as the failure mechanisms and lifelong prediction of joints. It additionally discusses the organic setting and interplay of substitute joints.

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1 "m, while for the plastic tibial and patellar components, the articulating surfaces should have an Ra value no greater than 2 "m. 08 mm. 6. 2 Joint replacement technology Friction and lubrication Significant efforts have been made in the literature to determine the coefficients of friction for various biomaterials in engineering. 7. , 2006). 8. , 2000) or the gap with ultrasound (Brockett, 2007).

2. The force of friction (F) is independent of the apparent area of contact. 3. The kinetic force of friction (F) is independent of the sliding speed (V). A non-dimensional ratio, known as coefficient of friction and denoted by ", is defined from the first law of friction: F or F ˆ "W 2X2 W The kinetic coefficient of friction is generally less than or equal to the static coefficient of friction. The friction at the bearing surfaces directly affects the stresses transmitted through the fixation interface.

The alternative experimental measurement of lubrication is directly through separation techniques. , 2000) or ultrasound measurements (Brockett, 2007). 4 Typical friction factors and associated lubrication regimes. © 2008, Woodhead Publishing Limited 2X5 38 Joint replacement technology where hmin is the minimum film thickness predicted based on the assumption of smooth bearing surfaces and Ra is average roughness. Therefore, if a representative minimum film thickness is estimated and the surface roughness parameters are measured, the lambda ratio and the corresponding lubrication regimes can be determined accordingly: · Boundary lubrication: !

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