By Sumantra Bose

In 2002, nuclear-armed adversaries India and Pakistan mobilized for conflict over the long-disputed territory of Kashmir, sparking panic world wide. Drawing on vast firsthand adventure within the contested quarter, Sumantra Bose finds how the clash turned a grave chance to South Asia and the area and indicates possible steps towards peace. notwithstanding the roots of clash lie after all of empire and the partition of the subcontinent in 1947, the modern challenge owes extra to next advancements, quite the serious authoritarianism of Indian rule. lethal dimensions were further given that 1990 with the increase of a Kashmiri independence circulation and guerrilla struggle waged via Islamist teams. Bose explains the complex mixture of local, ethnic, linguistic, spiritual, and caste groups that populate Kashmir, and emphasizes achievable framework for peace needs to bear in mind the sovereignty matters of India and Pakistan and well known aspirations to self-rule in addition to conflicting loyalties inside of Kashmir. He demands the institution of inclusive, consultant political buildings in Indian Kashmir, and cross-border hyperlinks among Indian and Pakistani Kashmir. Bose additionally invokes compelling comparisons to different instances, quite the peace-building framework in Northern eire, which deals very important classes for a cost in Kashmir. The Western international has now not absolutely liked the determined tragedy of Kashmir: among 1989 and 2003 violence claimed as much as 80,000 lives. Informative, balanced, and available, Kashmir is key interpreting for someone wishing to appreciate one of many world's most threatening conflicts. (20030902)

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This was a grave error. Poonch, along with neighboring west Punjab and NWFP districts, was a prime recruiting ground for soldiers of imperial Britain’s Indian army. 23 The area was thus full of recently demobilized soldiers, who responded to the reprisals by evacuating their families to west Punjab areas beyond the boundaries of the princely state, then returning to confront the regime’s forces. The revolt was renewed in the aftermath of partition in August, this time with a definite pro-Pakistan character.

K A S H M I R 32 But the NC’s mass base remained an indeterminate factor, albeit potentially tilted toward India because of its leaders’ ideological affinities and personal relationships. The second factor was the unique situation of a Hindu autocrat who ruled a Muslim-majority population, but who nonetheless was the legal authority to decide the issue of accession. The lull in Kashmir was broken in the spring of 1947, when an uprising against the maharaja broke out in Poonch, an area in northwestern Jammu sandwiched between the Kashmir Valley to the east and Rawalpindi division of northwestern Punjab to the west.

The manifesto called for the abolition of parasitic landlordism without compensation, transfer of land to the tillers, and establishment of cooperative associations. 16 Almost six decades later, Naya Kashmir is a very distant memory for people in Kashmir. In June 2002 a third-generation Abdullah, the sheikh’s grandson Omar, formally took over as president of the NC—a party that retains the name but is in every other sense a debased, skeletal version of the historic National Conference—from his father, the sheikh’s elder son, Farooq Abdullah.

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