By Sanjiv Harpavat, Sahar Nissim
This best-selling microbiology deck is now extra up to date and high-yield than ever. every one card incorporates a microorganism at the entrance and info its medical presentation, pathogenesis, analysis, and remedy at the again. Full-color scientific images, schematics, and algorithms let you try out your self, determine pathogens, classify organisms, and get ready for end-of-course checks and the USMLE Step 1.
Use research time successfully with this flash card deck!
Full-color photomicrographs and schematics depict the morphology of pathogens, structural good points, and medical findings.
Recall structure retains your evaluation vigorous and quick—maximizing examine time.
Algorithms on each one card classify organisms for simple memorization.
Take your examine at the highway! This deck comprises on-line entry to 70 bonus USMLE-style Q&A.
Read or Download Lippincott's Microcards: Microbiology Flash Cards (3rd Edition) PDF
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Extra resources for Lippincott's Microcards: Microbiology Flash Cards (3rd Edition)
Tetani C. botulinum non-motile C. difficile motile non-motile L. monocytogenes C. diphtheriae C. indd 11 not acid fast, obligate anaerobe weakly acid fast obligate aerobe A. israelii N. asteroides N. brasiliensis 11 7/10/11 1:15 AM Important Features of Gram ϩ and Gram Ϫ Bacteria Gram + • protects against phagocytosis • polysaccharide (exception: B. , S. , Pneumovax for S. , S. pneumoniae, H. indd 11b LPS (lipopolysaccharide): lipid A + polysaccharide endotoxin component of LPS that causes fever, shock important surface antigen (O antigen) in Gram − bacteria Periplasmic Space: Flagella: • site of β-lactamases, enzymes that cleave β-lactam drugs such as penicillins • for motility/ chemotaxis Pili: • shorter than flagella • help bacteria to attach to surfaces or cells 7/10/11 1:15 AM Staphylococcus aureus (toxin-mediated) Gram + bacteria Protein A: binds to Fc portion of host IgG cocci catalase + coagulase + S.
Cereus B. anthracis CLINICAL CASE A 33-year-old woman presents with an ulcerous lesion on the neck. The ulcer has a blackened necrotic eschar surrounded by edema. The woman first noticed the lesion 2 weeks ago as a painful, small red macule that gradually developed into an ulcer and, over the last few days, became painless. On the occupational history, the patient reveals that she works in the imported wool and hides industry. indd 25 7/10/11 1:15 AM Bacillus anthracis Anthrax CLINICAL PRESENTATION Local Cutaneous Anthrax (most common) malignant pustules GI Anthrax dysentery Systemic inhalation anthrax/woolsorter’s disease PATHOBIOLOGY spores from goat, cow, or other herbivore products → spores enter human via: • cutaneous abrasion → spores germinate and multiply locally → anthrax toxin secreted locally → causes tissue hemorrhage and necrosis → malignant pustules • ingestion → spores germinate and multiply locally in oropharynx or intestines → anthrax toxin secreted locally causes lesions in throat, intestines → dysentery • inhalation → spores germinate and multiply in respiratory tract → bacteria enter bloodstream and divide → anthrax toxin secreted systemically → may cause fever, dyspnea, nonproductive cough → 100% mortality anthrax toxin consists of protective antigen (PA) and either edema factor (EF) or lethal factor (LF) PA: binds cell membrane and mediates endocytic entry of EF or LF EF: adenylate cyclase activity →↑ [cAMP] → edema and inhibition of polymorphonuclear leukocytes LF: cell death DIAGNOSIS Gram ϩ rod in chains, protein capsule, aerobic, nonmotile serology TREATMENT parenteral penicillin G anti-PA vaccine QUICK FACTS Spores are destroyed by boiling but can survive for years in dry earth or goat skin.
CXR shows right lower lobe consolidation, and Gram stain of sputum shows Gram ϩ diplococci. Physicians begin treatment with cephalosporins. , meninges) and stimulate inflammation DIAGNOSIS Gram ϩ diplococci, ␣-hemolytic, catalase Ϫ, susceptible to optochin Quellung reaction TREATMENT penicillin or cephalosporins, except vancomycin for meningitis Pneumovax: vaccine with capsular polysaccharides QUICK FACTS Major cause of community-acquired pneumonia. Other systemic infections caused by S. pneumoniae include osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, and endocarditis.