By Thomas I. James

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41 RELAXATION MECHANISMS rotational, translational, or (rarely) vibrational, present in t h e lattice. T h e t e r m " l a t t i c e " refers t o t h e environment surrounding t h e nucleus. I t entails all ions or molecules in t h e sample, including t h e molecule containing t h e nucleus of interest. T h e r a n d o m motions of t h e molecules result in interaction of t h e nuclear spin system with random, fluctuating magnetic and electric fields having Fourier transform components a t t h e requisite frequency to induce transitions between t h e nuclear spin states.

0 0 0 26 2. PRINCIPLES OF NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE F I G . 2-7. N a N M R free i n d u c t i o n d e c a y for a s a t u r a t e d a q u e o u s N a C l solution. T h e position of t h e g a t e for monitoring t h e a m p l i t u d e of t h e F I D is illustrated. 2 3 uring Τι or T . T h e pulses are used b o t h as a m e t h o d for perturbing t h e spin system from equilibrium a n d as a m e a n s for detecting t h e magnetization. Because components of 5 ? are detected along t h e y axis, a 90° pulse (0 = π / 2 ) will n u t a t e a n y ζ component M so it will be detected.

T h e rf pulses are too fast to be observed. T m a y easily be calculated from t h e exponential decay of such traces using E q . 2-25. I n addition t o measuring T , t h e 90°-τ-180° a n d Carr-Purcell sequences have also been used t o advantage in measuring rapid chemical exchange rates ( 8 ) , spin-spin coupling ( 9 ) , a n d self-diffusion constants (10, 11). 4. FOURIER TRANSFORM NMR As already mentioned, a free induction decay ( F I D ) is observed following a n intense rf pulse a t t h e resonance frequency.

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