By Philoponus

Till the release of this sequence over ten years in the past, the 15,000 volumes of the traditional Greek commentators on Aristotle, written in most cases among 2 hundred and six hundred advert, constituted the biggest corpus of extant Greek philosophical writings no longer translated into English or different ecu languages. matters lined during this, the 3rd and final, quantity of translation of this paintings comprise: why the weather are 4 in quantity; what's improper with Empedocles' thought of parts; how homogeneous stuffs, relatively the tissues of a dwelling physique, end up and encompass the weather. the amount additionally comprises extremely important discussions of factors, really of effective reason, and of necessity within the sphere of iteration and corruption. it really is of curiosity to scholars of historic philosophy and technological know-how (the remark attracts on past philosophical and scientific texts); of Patristics and Christian Theology (it permits comparability of Philoponus' later creationist doctrine together with his past principles approximately generation); of medieval philosophy (this textual content used to be identified to the Arabs; it truly is utilized by Avicenna and Averroes); and to a person with curiosity within the metaphysics of causation, emergence, necessity and determinism.

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He expands Philoponus’ truncated lemmata in such a way that all of them taken together would give a full text of GC; where the expanded lemmata incorporate several of the old truncated ones, he eliminates the division of argument and combines separate arguments into a single one under his new longer ‘lemma’, sometimes inserting connecting sentences in place of the old lemmata to make the argument run smoothly. 103. complures praeterea editionis Aldinae paginas cum codice V collatas inveni. The Latin is ambiguous as the term editio in the textual criticism may refer generally either to the edition proper or to the copy of edition (I owe this point to Bob Todd), and in this case it must refer to the copy that Vitelli used, as his examples of readings make clear.

9 This, then, is the case if the principle were one. If (Ib) there are more, they are either (IIc) fewer than four,10 or (IId) all four; for no one has suggested a greater number. Now, if we posit (IIc) some of the four as the principles, then again it is necessary to say that those are either (IIIc) unchangeable or (IIId) changeable. And if (IIIc) unchangeable, then either (IVd) underlying the others qua matter or (IVe) not. And generally, all that was said about one [of them] can be said about more, as long as they are less in number than four.

He says that it was thus made clear from what was said that apart from the four elements there is not any other body subsisting by itself. g. 43 25 34 243,1 5 10 15 20 25 Translation 332a25-30 It must then be any one of the elements indifferently, or nothing. If, then, nothing perceptible at least is prior to these, these will be everything. ] Having shown that it is not possible that any of the four [elements] should be the matter of the rest, and having added the counter-arguments against Anaximander, he now says concluding that because the status of each of the four elements has equal importance, either each of them must be matter and a corporeal principle, or none of them.

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