By Norman Itzkowitz

This skillfully written textual content provides the complete sweep of Ottoman heritage from its beginnings at the Byzantine frontier in approximately 1300, via its improvement as an empire, to its past due eighteenth-century war of words with a speedily modernizing Europe. Itzkowitz delineates the basic associations of the Ottoman country, the key divisions in the society, and the elemental rules on govt and social constitution. all through, Itzkowitz emphasizes the Ottomans' personal belief in their historic event, and in so doing penetrates the outside view supplied through the insights of Western observers of the Ottoman international to the middle of Ottoman lifestyles.

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44 ‘§Èib, Bughyat al-W§jid, p. 162; M. Kh§nÊ, Al-Bahja al-Saniyya, p. 96. In his diploma to MuÈammad AmÊn #$bidÊn, Kh§lid added Qur"an exegesis, see ‘§Èib, ibid. the mystical praxis 43 The integration between mysticism and erudition underlies the NaqshbandÊ definition of the sufi saints (awliy§", lit. the friends of God). These are the #ulam§" al-#§milån, who combine the “external sciences” and the hidden wisdom, the sharÊ#a and the ÈaqÊqa, the two wings that the believer must seek in order to ascend to the world of sacredness (#§lam al-quds).

These raised two essential reservations, implying that it contradicted the two fundamental principles of the Naqshbandiyya. 27 Unprepared to sacrifice the usual independence of shaykhs within their orders for the sake of a more unified organization, these Kh§lidÊ deputies preferred to follow previous NaqshbandÊ masters who taught that disciples should bind their hearts to their immediate guides. Their focus on the inner—organizational dimension of the r§biãa is evidenced by Shaykh Kh§lid’s rejoinder to this challenge to his authority, his Epistle in Verification of the R§biãa.

201-202. 31 ‘§Èib, Bughyat al-W§jid, p. 41; #A. Kh§nÊ, Al-\ad§"iq al-Wardiyya, p. 8. 32 For a detailed description of the practical aspects of these methods to reach God see Baghd§dÊ, Al-\adÊqa al-Nadiyya, pp. 88-91; M. Kh§nÊ, Al-Bahja al-Saniyya, pp. 47-53. 33 For the list of the eleven principles see Trimingham, pp. 203-204; and their analysis from a NaqshbandÊ point of view in M. Kh§nÊ, Al-Bahja al-Saniyya, pp. 53-57. For a description of a NaqshbandÊ dhikr ceremony which he attended and its resemblance to Buddhist practices, see Van Bruinessen, pp.

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