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By Israel Zelitch
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Additional info for Photosynthesis, Photorespiration, and Plant Productivity
Similar results on the localization of protein-synthesizing activity in chloroplasts have been obtained with preparations from wheat (Bamji and Jagendorf, 1966) and bean leaves (Parenti and Margulies, 1967). 4 Leaf nbosomes incorporate 1C-leucine in the presence of ATP and an ATP-generating system (Williams and Novelli, 1964), and the incorporation is greatly enhanced in illuminated leaves compared with dark-grown plants, suggesting that chloroplast ribosomes are primarily responsible for the enhanced rate of protein synthesis.
2 2. Chloroplasts and Their Activities "Percent of total in the chloroplast present in the lamellae; chlorophyll entirely in the lamellae. *Proplastids contained 40-50% protein and 18-20% lipid. 695 for nuclear DNA. 33 gm DNA per 100 gm chlorophyll. DNA content of a nucleus was equivalent to 104 chloroplasts. 5-methylcytosine absent in chloroplast DNA in contrast to nuclear DNA. 6 χ 10~ 12 gm. Twenty-two percent of the chloroplast protein was lamellar and 18% was in the stroma. About 10% carbohydrate was associated with the lamellar proteins, which contained a relatively large amount of nonpolar amino acid residues and little cysteine.
Such observations led Krinsky (1966) to suggest that the light-catalyzed epoxidation (addition of an oxygen atom across a double bond) of a xanthophyll may protect cells against lethal photosensitized oxidations. He demonstrated that such an epoxidation occurred, and that de-epoxidation could then be carried out enzymatically in the presence of NADPH. This cyclic process would result in the carotenoids drawing off oxygen in the neighborhood of the chlorophyll molecules, thus protecting them. j3-Carotene is probably present in spinach chloroplasts in the form of a complex with structural protein of the lamellae.