By Imran Ahmed

Pipelined ADCs have visible extraordinary advancements in functionality over the past few years. As such, whilst designing a pipelined ADC a transparent figuring out of the layout tradeoffs, and cutting-edge concepts is needed to enforce present day excessive functionality low energy ADCs. Written for either researchers and execs, Pipelined ADC layout and Enhancement Techniques provides:

i.) an academic dialogue, for these new to pipelined ADCs, of the fundamental layout and tradeoffs inquisitive about designing a pipelined ADC

ii.) a close dialogue of 4 novel silicon proven pipelined ADC topologies geared in the direction of these seeking to achieve perception into cutting-edge layout within the region. The ADCs distinctive contain:

- An 11-bit 45MS/s ADC which swiftly digitally calibrates within the heritage either DAC and achieve errors

- A 10-bit ADC with energy scalable among 50MS/s (35mW) to 1kS/s (15µW)

- A 10-bit ADC to be used in sub-sampled platforms with a strategy to do away with the front-end sample-and-hold

- A 10-bit, 50MS/s ADC which makes use of a capacitive cost pump established method of allow a truly small energy intake of 9.9mW.

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Sample text

Input/output plot for the pipeline stage) of the first stage MDAC when the DC gain of the opamp is infinite, the opamp bandwidth infinite, and no capacitor mismatch. Also shown is the total ADC output which is generated by a summation of the bits generated by the sub-ADC from the first pipeline stage and the backend ideal N-1 bit Flash ADC. If the opamp of Fig. 5 has a DC gain of A, the transfer function from input to output can be found to be: Vout ¼ Vin P2n 1 Ci 1 1 1 þ Ab Cf ! 3) MDAC Switchedcapacitor circuit Vin n-bit Flash ADC + + 2n S/H – n VADC(i) n-bit DAC Ideal n-bits resolved per stage N-1-bit Vin 1st Pipeline stage (MDAC Switched Capacitor circuit) Fig.

According to square law equations, as transistor drain–source currents are reduced, transistor VGS! 7) However as transistor VGS tends to Vt, the channel region below the gate oxide becomes less inverted [29] (referred to as weak inversion), such that the inversion channel bridging the source and drain becomes diffusion carrier dominated, rather than drift carrier dominated as is the case in strong inversion. Thus like BJTs (which have a current dominated by diffusion), MOS transistors for low bias currents have a current that is exponentially related to the gate–source voltage [30].

Pð fs Þ ¼ ið fs ÞVð fs Þ). Power scaling by supply voltage scaling is not a viable option as reducing the supply voltage reduces signal swing, possibly moving saturated devices into the triode region, and/or significantly reducing the ADC SNR due to reduced signal swings. As minimum signal swings are required in analog circuits, power scaling by voltage reduction can only provide a minimal power-speed dependency. Analog power scaling is commonly achieved by making the bias currents a function of sampling frequency [27, 28].

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