By Metin Heper, Jacob M. Landau

Because the institution in 1945 of a constitutional democracy, political events have figured prominently in Turkish politics. but key gains of the political tradition of the Turkish Republic have additionally created dilemmas for multi-party democracy. two times, in 1960 and 1980 the army has intervened in politics; at the moment get together to adopt wholesale constitutional restructuring. In those ambiguous situations, what position have the political events themselves performed within the promoting and functioning of democracy in Turkey, and what are their attitudes to the problems concerned? This selection of essays - discusses political events because the starting place of the Turkish republic in 1923 until eventually the current day. It includes contributions from thirteen political scientists and historians of recent Turkey.

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This development was not surprising, given, as we have seen, Atatiirk's emphasis on economic development. ·influence in the Party. Its views marked a significant move away from Atatiirk's liberal ideas. The Kadro movement - taking its name from the journal Kadro, and led by the powerful Recep Peker - believed in a more collective approach and on much more forcible change. This was quite different from Atattirk's bold, but still cautious attitude. '3s For the Kadroists ATATURK AND POLITICAL PARTIES 37 social unity and the strong state were vital, and in a totalitarian drift, a political party was defined as 4an assembly of individuals who hold similar views as to the administration of the state'.

1 To us this might seem rather narrow; we expect political parties to have a wide range of 'particular' matt~rs on which its members are agreed, expecting the party to be advocating a broad policy. Burke's ATATURK AND POLITICAL PARTIES 25 definition is most notable, however, for its highmindedness. Not only does a party promote the national interest, it leans on principle. The contrast with 'faction' could not be more apparent. Modem definitions of party strive to be more 'realistic'. Take, for instance, Schumpeter's non-nonnative definition.

In view of the danger threatening our country, we work closely together. ' 'I never expected to see so much ingratitude'(,Bu kadarnankjjr~ luk gorecegimi hif beklemezdim')/ he told me in a personal POLITICAL PARTIES IN TURKEY 23 interview in 1954. See Dankwart A. Rustow, Turkey: America's Forgotten Ally (New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 1987), 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 130. , pp. 62ff. See Joseph Szyliowicz, Political Change in Rural Turkey: Erdemli (The Hague: Mouton, 1966). Dankwart A.

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