By Sun Kwok (auth.), Ryszard Szczerba, Sławomir K. Górny (eds.)

The time period proto-planetary nebulae (PPNe) within the context of the overdue levels of stellar evolution was once created merely a little bit greater than twenty years in the past to specific the assumption that during the close to destiny those items turns into planetary nebulae (PNe). the 1st proto-planetary nebulae (called additionally post-Asymptotic monstrous department, or almost immediately post-AGB gadgets) AFGL 2688 and AFGL 618 have been chanced on in mid­ seventies in process the Air strength Sky Survey. research of this part of stellar evolution built very quickly in 1980's after the IRAS project whilst it grew to become transparent that proto-planetary nebulae emit an important a part of their strength within the mid-and far-infrared. enormous quantities of recent applicants were proposed however the popularity of the genuine proto-planetary nebulae isn't really an easy job and desires a considerable attempt to exclude circumstances that symbolize diversified evolutionary phases. excessive solution spectroscopy of stellar atmospheres is of a lot value during this recognize. strangely, just a small crew of significant stars, the so referred to as 21 11m emitters, express chemical signatures of the three rd dredge­ up technique. Very lately, a extra specified reviews of mid-infrared spectra from the Infrared area Observatory (ISO) permit for a greater realizing of chemical composition and evolution of circumstellar fabric round those stars. a brand new impetus within the box of proto-planetary nebulae study was once all started within the 1990's with excessive spatial answer imaging in mid-infrared and optical wavelength ranges.

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Extra info for Post-AGB Objects as a Phase of Stellar Evolution: Proceedings of the Toruń Workshop held July 5–7, 2000

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Marina Civil. Universidade da Corufia Paseo de Ronda 51, E-15011 A Corufia, Spain Pedro Garcia-Lario ISO Data Centre. Astrophysics Division, ESA. Estacion de Seguimiento de Satelites de Villafranca del Castillo. Apartado de Correos 50727, E-28080 Madrid, Spain Minia Manteiga Departamento de Ciencias de la Navegacion y de la Tierra E. S. Marina Civil. Universidade da Corufia Paseo de Ronda 51, E-15011 A Corufia, Spain Stuart R. Pottasch Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, Postbus 800, NL-9700 AV Groningen, The Netherlands Abstract Over the past 12 years we have been conducting a survey of IRAS (PSC) sources with dust temperatures between 100 and 250 K, which is the temperature of AGB shells after mass loss has ceased.

The L-[25] and K-[25] colors relate the stellar component with the peak of the dust emission, a larger color indicating a more prominent dust shell. We note that the L- [25] color is relatively insensitive to extinction. In Fig. 1, stars obscured by their dust shells lie in the upper half of the diagram (larger K-L) while stars visible through their dust shells lie in the lower half. The objects located to the right of the dashed line are extended and some show bipolar morphology in the K-band.

S. 1991, A&A 87, 361 Ueta, T. , Bobrowsky, M. , Kwok, S. Fujii2, YNakada 2,3 1. Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore, India 2. Institute of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Japan 3. in Abstract 1. From the study of JRAS sources with far-IR colors similar to planetary nebulae (PNe), several proto-planetary nebulae with hot (OB) post-AGB central stars have been detected. These stars form an evolutionary link between the cooler G,F,A supergiant stars that have evolved off the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) and the hot (OB) central stars ofPNe.

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