By Norman Franks

This can be the desirable tale of the 4 uncooked brothers, all of whom served with the Royal Air strength. The eldest 3 flew in the course of WW2 and all 3 died.

The youngest, no longer the right age to determine wartime flying, flew night-fighters within the postwar years, finishing up flying Spitfires with the conflict of england Memorial Flight. The eldest brother, John, was once killed in a flying twist of fate simply as he was once beginning a task as a flying teacher, in 1941. Peter used to be a fighter pilot, flying Typhoons with 609 Squadron, profitable the DFC. unfortunately he used to be killed in motion with 183 Squadron in 1944. Tony flew Hampden and Lancaster bombers, got the DFC and AFC, yet was once additionally killed in motion in 1944.

Their father were a naval officer, serving normally in destroyers in WW1, profitable the DSC. He remained within the military submit warfare to develop into a commander yet then turned a barrister at legislations prior to his premature loss of life in 1932. All 4 boys saved up a fit and loving correspondence with their mom, correct from their time at Wellington university, till their passing.

The booklet tells in their lives via those letters, written at a time whilst humans wrote virtually day-by-day to one another, if just a couple of traces. it's a touching memorial to 4 younger males who served their kingdom and its air strength good. unfortunately too, Michael, whose RAF profession introduced him the AFC, died of melanoma in 1986, yet all 4 left dwelling testaments to their younger lives and gallantry as RAF pilots in battle and peace.

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Additional info for Raw Courage: The Extraordinary and Tragic Story of Four RAF Brothers in Arms

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As I wrote each chapter, I came to understand that how we remember torture is as much a part of the story I am telling as the actual mapping of the torture techniques themselves. Too often the problems that arose in the mapping arose not from what was done, but from what was subsequently said about what was done. Some of us, more than others, are in a position to confront the practice of torture today, but, as I argue in chapter 24, all of us have the responsibility to attend to what we say about torture and to appreciate how important it is to take proper care of our memories.

So why would they care whether torture leaves marks or not? There are two related puzzles here. First, why did authoritarian states in the early twentieth century not use clean techniques, and what explains the few exceptions when they did? And why did authoritarian states in the late twentieth century adopt torture techniques that left few marks? Again, in these cases, I argue that the presence or absence of monitoring made a critical difference. On my account, it is hardly surprising that authoritarian states did not bother with clean tortures in the early twentieth century.

17 It is unlikely this officer had any direct connection to Amnesty. It’s possible he knew his immediate superior didn’t want a mess, or that he had a circular directly from Mobutu’s office on the subject or he was in touch with the local CIA adviser who told him to cool it. The truth is we are unlikely ever to know. All we can say for certain is that he cared about international monitoring. It’s possible other people around him did too, but who more so than others is anyone’s guess. But there is reason to believe that the United States did not distribute clean techniques to its allies worldwide in the 1970s as a matter of policy.

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