By Resat Kasaba, Sibel Bozdogan

Within the first 20 years after W.W.II, social scientist heralded Turkey as an exemplar of a 'modernizing' kingdom within the Western mould. pictures of unveiled ladies operating subsequent to clean-shaven males, fit teenagers in class uniforms, and downtown Ankara's glossy structure all proclaimed the country's luck. even if Turkey's modernization begun within the past due Ottoman period, the institution of the secular countryside via Kemal Ataturk in 1923 marked the crystallization of an specific, elite-driven 'project of modernity' that took its idea solely from the West.The essays during this booklet are the 1st try to study the Turkish test with modernity from a extensive, interdisciplinary point of view, encompassing the fields of heritage, the social sciences, the arts, structure, and concrete making plans. As they study either the Turkish venture of modernity and its critics, the participants provide a clean, balanced knowing of dilemmas now dealing with not just Turkey but additionally many different elements of the center East and the area at huge.

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While the elites and the intelligentsia asked themselves where things had gone wrong—or rather, where they had gone wrong—the people strived to accommodate themselves to a lack of direction, growing anomie, the decaying of institutions, and lawlessness. Observing the demise of the developmentalist ideal, they responded to the promises of the nation–state with growing incredulity. In a context where modernity was a conscious imposition by modernizers whose arsenal was the exercise of state power, the crisis of the state seemed to forebode the bankruptcy of the entire project.

Cited in Peter Gay, The Enlightenment. Back. Note 40: On this point, see Daniel Chirot, “Modernism without Liberalism: The Ideological Roots of Modern Tyranny,” Contention, vol. 13, 1995, 141–66; Greenfeld, Nationalism, 1–26, 189–274, 222–34; Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, London: Verso, 1991 [1983]. Back. Note 41: Anderson, Imagined Communities, 26. Back. Note 42: It is important to note that a parallel development was taking place in the former provinces of the Ottoman Empire, especially in the Balkans.

The state was actively engaged in economic development and protected the domestic market both by regulating imports and by expanding the market through redistributionist policies. ”13 In its early stages of rapid growth in Turkey, ISI was successful in combining the interests of various classes around the project of inward-oriented national development. In its later stages, the bottlenecks inherent in ISI led to a crisis and the fragmentation of class coalitions. 14 During this period, the ISI model of development allowed for a populist set of class alliances and supported the conditions for a democratic regime.

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