By Salem Press

Lucan's recognized dictum that these status at the shoulders of giants see greater than the giants themselves applies to no human activity extra completely than to the "pure" sciences: astronomy, chemistry, biology, geology, arithmetic, physics, and the various subdisciplines they've got spawned. the 3 volumes of "Science and Scientists" records greater than two hundred of an important breakthroughs or milestones within the heritage of technology, cross-referenced to hyperlink those who outfitted on others, from precedent days to the current day. those essays are followed via biographical sidebars on approximately as many giants in the back of the discoveries. The disciplines lined listed below are huge, together with Anthropology, Archaeology, Astronomy, Biology, Chemistry, computing device technology, Earth Sciences, Evolution, Genetics, arithmetic, medication, Meteorology, Paleontology, Physics, Psychology, and house technology. prepared alphabetically, those essays handle an important breakthroughs in those fields, starting from summary Algebra to Quantum Mechanics, from the large Bang to X-Ray Astronomy, from Antisepsis to Viruses. Accompanying approximately each essay is a pill biography of 1 of the main scientists liable for the leap forward, from Aristotle to Zwicky. you will need to observe that technological advances and innovations - akin to the phone, the sunshine bulb, and the plane - aren't addressed right here yet are lined within the significant other Magill's "Choice Set innovations and Inventors" (2 vols., 2002). although, a couple of "crossover" achievements (such because the computer, the web, or Vaccination) - are incorporated in those pages as having had as nice an effect at the "pure" sciences as on functions to lifestyle. Achievements of the distance Age at present stand someplace among; the middle achievements in area, with an emphasis on area technology, are for this reason incorporated the following. every one essay opens with a short definition of the subject and a precis of its importance, by way of an inventory of the relevant figures concerned. The textual content of every essay follows, damaged by way of informative subheads. Cross-references to different essays in those volumes persist with, and every essay ends with an inventory of center assets for "Further Reading." All essays have been written via students of background or the sciences.

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Long escaped the litigation and public quarreling in which Jackson and Morton became embroiled. He survived the Civil War and died a respected and successful practitioner in Georgia. His failure to publish the results of his early experiments deprived him of credit for the discovery of anesthetic surgery, and had he not encountered the publicity given to Morton’s successful demonstration in 1846, Long might never have made mention of his work. Impact News of Morton’s demonstration of painless surgery spread rapidly throughout the world, and the use of anesthesia (a name suggested by Oliver Wendell Holmes) for surgical and obstetrical purposes quickly became general.

In the mid-1750’s, Edward Stone, a British religious clergyman as well as an amateur naturalist, observed that the bitter taste of the willow bark was similar to that of the cinchona. He also noticed that by chewing ground powder from the willow, one could relieve the pain associated with ague, a general condition often marked by headache or muscle pain. Stone reported his findings to the British Royal Society, a collection of naturalists and mathematicians. While Stone’s work was acknowledged, the true significance of his discovery was overlooked.

His “Mr. Tompkins” series used science fiction to explain difficult science in a way that anyone— including Tompkins, whose attention span was notoriously short— could understand. In 1954, inspired by the Watson-Crick DNA model, he theorized that the order of the DNA molecules determined protein structure. ” His “diamond code” paved the way for Marshall W. Nirenberg to crack the genetic code in 1961. In 1956, Gamow settled in Boulder to teach at the University of Colorado. That year, he received UNESCO’s Kalinga Prize for his popularization of science, and two years later he was married (a second time) to Barbara “Perky” Perkins, who initiated the George Gamow Lecture Series after his death, in 1968.

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