By C. Ray, Kenneth J. Ryan
The major microbiology textual content! completely revised and up to date, this ebook presents scholars with a great snatch of etiologic brokers, pathogenic tactics, epidemiology, and the foundation of significant treatment. comprises entire discussions of the key bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic pathogens. Highlighted marginal notes and medical functions are integrated all through. (20031010)
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Extra info for Sherris Medical Microbiology : An Introduction to Infectious Diseases
External layer Cytosol contains 70 S ribosomes and most of cell’s metabolic enzymes Cell wall Cytoplasmic membrane Nucleoid Ribosomes FIGURE 2 – 13 Electron micrograph of a Gramnegative bacterium. (Courtesy of the late Dr. E. S. ) 24 P A R T I The Bacterial Cell The number of ribosomes varies directly with the growth rate of the cell (see Chapter 3). At all but the slowest growth rates about 70% of the ribosomes at any one time exist as polysomes and are engaged in translating mRNA. Except for the functions associated with the cell membrane, all of the metabolic reactions of the cell take place in the cytosol.
Some spore-forming bacteria are of great importance in medicine, causing such diseases as anthrax, gas gangrene, tetanus, and botulism. All spore formers are Gram-positive rods. Some grow only in the absence of oxygen (eg, Clostridium tetani), some only in its presence (eg, Bacillus subtilis). The bacterial endospore is not a reproductive structure. One cell forms one spore under adverse conditions (the process is called sporulation). The spore may persist for a long time (centuries) and then, on appropriate stimulation, give rise to a single bacterial cell (germination).
This topic is considered in more detail in Chapter 4. SPORES Endospores are small, dehydrated, metabolically quiescent forms that are produced by some bacteria in response to nutrient limitation or a related sign that tough times are coming. Very few species produce spores (the term is loosely used as equivalent to C H A P T E R 2 25 Bacterial Structures endospores), but they are particularly prevalent in the environment. Some spore-forming bacteria are of great importance in medicine, causing such diseases as anthrax, gas gangrene, tetanus, and botulism.